Table 2

LWDS-11 and YACD means in different sociodemographic categories of smokers

Characteristic**Total n=3384LWDS-11 Mean (SD)p ValueYACD (SD)p Value
Sex0.0820.006
 Male1980 (58.5%)10.62 (6.21)14.22 (5.95)
 Female1399 (41.3%)9.86 (5.84)12.70 (5.98)
Marital status0.006*0.664
 Married115 (3.4%)10.00 (4.85)14.76 (7.65)
 Single3243 (95.8%)10.19 (6.02)13.84 (5.99)
 Widow or divorced9 (0.3%)17.50 (6.17)11.5 (0.00)
Socioeconomic status quartiles††0.350.051
 Quartile 1736 (21.7%)9.69 (5.51)15.61 (6.09)
 Quartile 2746 (22.0%)10.67 (5.78)14.11 (6.11)
 Quartile 3632 (18.7%)9.68 (6.04)13.51 (5.65)
 Quartile 4746 (22.1%)10.47 (6.90)13.70 (5.95)
Age classes (years)0.053†<0.001*
 17–19958 (28.3%)9.42 (5.86)11.69 (5.37)
 20–211424 (42.1%)10.75 (5.88)14.93 (5.90)
 22 and more982 (29.0%)10.14 (6.36)13.27 (6.07)
Private university1754 (51.8%)10.21 (6.03)0.42213.33 (5.88)0.005
Public university1630 (48.2%)9.86 (6.07)14.77 (6.09)
Region0.135<0.001¶
 Beyrouth526 (15.5%)10.72 (6.62)13.21 (5.99)
 Mount Lebanon1606 (47.5%)9.55 (6.03)14.05 (5.89)
 North Lebanon505 (14.9%)10.91 (4.87)15.47 (6.43)
 South Lebanon474 (14.0%)10.55 (6.21)9.99 (3.47)
 Bekaa plain221 (6.5%)9.95 (6.07)12.28 (6.31)
Number of smokers at home<0.001*<0.001§
 No smokers896 (26.5%)9.00 (5.51)11.98 (5.19)
 One smoker1022 (30.2%)8.87 (5.65)11.68 (5.44)
 Two smokers722 (21.3%)10.21 (5.75)12.46 (5.45)
 Three and more604 (17.8%)12.28 (6.42)16.21 (5.92)
  • *All two by two differences were significant.

  • †Difference significant between the first two categories.

  • ‡Difference between first and third categories was significant. §Difference significant between third category and others is significant.

  • §Difference between the third category and others is significant.

  • ¶South Lebanon significantly different from other regions.

  • **ANOVA was used in all comparisons, with Bonferoni adjustment; Kruskall-Wallis non parametric test was used for marital status due to small subgroup size, with further Wilcoxon two-by-two comparison.

  • ††Socioeconomic status of students was defined using their mean monthly income per family divided by the number of family members; afterwards, quartiles were calculated and used to classify individuals into four levels; we note that 524(15.5%) gave no valid answer for socio-economic status.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; LWDS-11, Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Scale-11; YACD, Young Adults Cigarette Dependence.