Table 1

Validity and reliability of the LWDS-11 among university students of Lebanon

ItemsFactor 1
Physiological dependence
Factor 2
Psychological craving
Factor 3
Negative reinforcement
Factor 4
Positive reinforcement
How many times were you able to stay 7 days without smoking waterpipe?0.877   
How many days could you stay without smoking waterpipe?0.871
Number of smoked waterpipes per week?0.798
Would you smoke waterpipe even if you are ill/bedridden? 0.836  
Are you ready not to eat in exchange for a waterpipe?0.827
Would you smoke waterpipe alone?0.547
How much of your income are you ready to pay for waterpipe smoking?0.426
Smokes waterpipe to relax his nerves  0.868 
Smokes waterpipe to improve his morale0.862
Smokes waterpipe to please others (conviviality)   0.910
Smokes waterpipe for pleasure0.573
Cronbach's α reliability measure0.8060.6590.6710.527
  • LWDS-11,Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Scale-11.