Table 4

Multivariate analysis tobacco use and dependence

Binomial-dependent variableLogistic regression
Independent variables
Adjusted OR(95% of CI)p Value
Current waterpipe smoking*,†Studying in a private university1.50(1.26 to 1.79)<0.001
Successful people smoke1.46(1.29 to 1.65)<0.001
Cool people smoke1.25(1.12 to 1.39)<0.001
Friends think it is important not to smoke0.86(0.78 to 0.96)0.006
Ever smoking cigarettes1.80(1.44 to 2.26)<0.001
Female sex vs. male1.00(0.83 to 1.21)0.969
Higher age class1.01(0.90 to 1.13)0.871
Current cigarette smoking*,†Female sex vs. male0.24(0.19 to 0.29)<0.001
Other than single marital status2.63(1.20 to 5.76)0.016
Higher age class1.37(1.19 to 1.57)<0.001
Mount Lebanon vs. Beirut1.37(1.03 to 1.82)0.029
North Lebanon vs. Beirut1.46(1.00 to 2.13)0.053
South Lebanon vs. Beirut0.48(0.30 to 0.78)0.003
Bekaa plain vs. Beirut0.61(0.36 to 1.02)0.057
Studying in a private university1.96(1.58 to 2.43)<0.001
Successful people smoke1.75(1.52 to 2.01)<0.001
My idols smoke1.13(0.99 to 1.30)0.074
Parents think it is important not to smoke0.81(0.70 to 0.93)0.002
Ever smoking waterpipes1.56(1.22 to 1.99)<0.001
Continuous-dependent variableMultiple regression
Independent variables
Adjusted standardised βAdjusted β values (95% CI)p Value
LWDS-11 among WP smokers†,‡Parents think it is important not to smoke−0.124−1.09 (−1.79 to −0.28)0.002
Friends think it is important not to smoke−0.117−0.87 (−1.46 to −0.28)0.004
My idols smoke0.0790.63 (0.06 to 1.21)0.031
Higher age class0.0690.58 (−0.01 to 1.17)0.053
Female sex vs. Male−0.019−0.23 (−1.09 to 0.64)0.609
YACD among cigarette smokers§,†Parents think it is important not to smoke−0.24−1.87 (−2.45 to −1.29)<0.001
My idols smoke0.161.18 (0.56 to 1.80)<0.001
Rich people smoke0.130.97 (0.37 to 1.57)0.002
Successful people smoke0.080.56 (−0.02 to 1.14)0.059
Higher age class0.070.58 (−0.06 to 1.21)0.075
Female sex vs. male−0.06−0.77 (−1.77 to 0.24)0.136
  • *Performed on whole university students sample; conditions for sample adequacy satisfied; stepwise backward model; all other variables were not retained in the model. Gender and age class were forced in the models.

  • †Variables included in all models: marital status, socioeconomic classes, region of residence, private university (versus public), successful people smoke, cool people smoke, rich people smoke, my idols smoke, parents think it is important not to smoke, friends think it is important not to smoke, people of the same age think it is important not to smoke, smoking other type of tobacco. Gender and age class were forced in the models.

  • ‡R=0.255; adjusted R2=0.065; stepwise model; Variance Inflation Factor (VIF)<2; residuals are normal; all other variables were not retained in the model. Gender and age class were forced in the models.

  • §R=0.426; sdjusted R2=0.175; stepwise model; VIF<2; residual are normal; all other variables were not retained in the model. Gender and age class were forced in the models.

  • LWDS-11, Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Scale-11; WP, waterpipe; YACD, Young Adults Cigarette Dependence.