Table 3

Effect of high-carbohydrate and low-carbohydrate diets on body weight, blood lipids, apolipoproteins and 10-year CHD risk (n=39)

High carbohydrateLow carbohydrateBetween-treatment difference†p Value‡
Week 0*Ad libitum*Week 0*Ad libitum*
Body weight (kg)85.4 (79.3 to 91.6)80.4 (74.2 to 86.6)83.7 (78.5 to 89.0)76.9 (71.9 to 81.9)−1.1 (−2.1 to 0.0)0.047
BMI31.1 (29.9 to 32.4)29.2 (27.9 to 30.5)31.1 (29.8 to 32.4)28.7 (27.3 to 30.1)−0.4 (−0.8 to 0.0)0.039
Body fat (%)38.9 (34.0 to 43.8)35.0 (30.7 to 39.2)35.6 (30.1 to 41.1)31.4 (26.1 to 36.6)−1.7 (−4.0 to 0.7)0.161
Waist circumference (cm)102.8 (99.4 to 106.2)97.4 (93.1 to 101.6)99.8 (96.1 to 103.5)93.7 (89.8 to 97.7)0.1 (−1.1 to 1.3)0.861
Fasting glucose5.2 (4.9 to 5.4)4.6 (4.5 to 4.7)5.2 (5.0 to 5.4)4.6 (4.4 to 4.9)0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2)0.447
HbA1c (%)5.2 (5.0 to 5.4)5.2 (5.0 to 5.3)5.3 (5.0 to 5.5)5.2 (5.0 to 5.4)0.0 (−0.2 to 0.1)0.852
Fasting insulin50.0 (38.3 to 61.7)36.4 (27.5 to 45.4)47.3 (36.9 to 57.6)33.3 (22.8 to 43.9)−0.6 (−9.1 to 8.0)0.898
HOMA-IR1.65 (1.17 to 2.13)1.11 (0.81 to 1.41)1.53 (1.19 to 1.88)0.99 (0.68 to 1.30)0.01 (−0.30 to 0.33)0.937
Satiety (−4 to 4)1.0 (0.7 to 1.4)0.9 (0.7 to 1.2)1.2 (0.8 to 1.7)1.1 (0.8 to 1.4)−0.1 (−0.4 to 0.2)0.440
Exercise, METs17.4 (12.4 to 22.4)25.8 (21.1 to 30.6)24.0 (12.9 to 35.0)23.9 (15.3 to 32.6)−9.3 (-16.4 to −2–2)0.012
Cholesterol (mmol/L§)
 Total6.75 (6.28 to 7.21)6.49 (5.97 to 7.02)6.76 (6.21 to 7.31)6.10 (5.67 to 6.53)−0.62 (−0.86 to −0.37)<0.001
 LDL-C4.40 (3.99 to 4.82)4.40 (3.91 to 4.90)4.53 (4.14 to 4.93)4.06 (3.71 to 4.42)−0.49 (−0.70 to −0.28)<0.001
 HDL-C1.36 (1.22 to 1.50)1.35 (1.22 to 1.48)1.21 (1.06 to 1.36)1.25 (1.10 to 1.39)0.03 (−0.02 to 0.07)0.245
 Triglycerides2.16 (1.62 to 2.70)1.71 (1.35 to 2.07)2.23 (1.65 to 2.80)1.50 (1.22 to 1.77)−0.34 (−0.57 to −0.11)0.005
Ratios
 TC:HDL-C5.17 (4.54 to 5.80)4.92 (4.49 to 5.34)5.81 (5.20 to 6.41)5.13 (4.65 to 5.62)−0.57 (−0.83 to −0.32)<0.001
 LDL-C:HDL-C3.35 (2.95 to 3.75)3.34 (3.00 to 3.68)3.89 (3.49 to 4.29)3.48 (3.06 to 3.90)−0.42 (−0.60 to −0.24)<0.002
Apolipoproteins (g/L)¶
 ApoA11.69 (1.60 to 1.78)1.69 (1.60 to 1.77)1.57 (1.45 to 1.69)1.57 (1.46 to 1.67)−0.02 (−0.06 to 0.02)0.316
 ApoB1.38 (1.26 to 1.50)1.23 (1.13 to 1.33)1.42 (1.30 to 1.54)1.20 (1.10 to 1.31)−0.11 (−0.16 to −0.06)<0.001
 ApoB: ApoA10.83 (0.74 to 0.91)0.74 (0.68 to 0.80)0.92 (0.84 to 0.99)0.78 (0.70 to 0.86)−0.05 (−0.09 to −0.02)0.003
Hs-CRP (mg/dL)2.1 (1.0 to 3.3)1.9 (1.3 to 2.4)3.0 (1.5 to 4.5)2.6 (1.0 to 4.1)−0.4 (−0.9 to 0.1)0.082
Blood pressure (mm Hg)
 Systolic122 (116 to 128)118 (114 to 122)128 (123 to 132)123 (119 to 128)−2 (−5 to 2)0.356
 Diastolic75 (72 to 79)74 (71 to 77)77 (74 to 80)76 (71 to 80)−1 (−3 to 1)0.288
10-year CHD risk (%)**8 (6 to 9)7 (6 to 9)12 (9 to 14)9 (7 to 11)−2 (−2 to -1)<0.001
  • Values represent mean±95% CIs.

  • *Values represent multiple imputation (taking the mean of 5 sets of randomly imputed values) to generate data for those who dropped out or had missing values.

  • †Between-treatment difference, change from baseline between the two diets using all available data.

  • ‡p-values assessed using all available data and a repeated measures mixed model accounting for time of assessment. The response variable was change from baseline, with diet and week as fixed effects and subject ID nested in diet. There was no adjustment for baseline.

  • §To convert total cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C to mg/dL, divide by 0.0259; to convert triglycerides to mg/dL, divide by 0.0113.

  • ¶To convert apolipoprotein A1 and B to mg/dL, multiply by 100.

  • **Significantly different between-treatments at baseline assessed by two sample t test (two tailed), p=0.007.

  • BMI, body mass index; CHD, coronary heart disease; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, homoeostasis model assessment—insulin resistance model; Hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C reactive protein; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MET, metabolic equivalents; TC, total cholesterol.