Table 1

Staff members’ assessment of communication within and between groups, safety attitudes and empowerment in the intervention and comparison group at baseline and follow-up as change over time between groups

Intervention group–within groupComparison group–within groupChange over time between groups
Measurement factorsCronbach's αMean value (SD)*p Value*Mean value (SD)*p Value*p Value†
ICU Nurse–Physician Questionnaire
Within-group communication openness
 Baseline0.804.3 (0.6)4.4 (0.6)
 Follow-up0.784.3 (0.5)0.9984.4 (0.5)0.5290.390
Between-group communication openness
 Baseline
 Physician↔RN;
LPN↔Physician;
RN↔LPN
0.82
0.88
0.84
4.3 (0.5)4.2 (0.6)
 Follow-up
 Physician↔RN;
LPN↔Physician;
RN↔LPN
0.85
0.84
0.82
4.3 (0.5)0.6864.3 (0.6)0.0390.263
Within-group communication accuracy
 Baseline0.733.3 (0.8)3.7 (0.8)
 Follow-up0.753.4 (0.8)0.0763.7 (0.9)0.9660.371
Between-group communication accuracy
 Baseline
 Physician↔RN;
LPN↔Physician;
RN↔LPN
0.69
0.68
0.77
3.3 (0.8)3.5 (0.8)
 Follow-up
 Physician↔RN;
LPN↔Physician;
RN↔LPN
0.77
0.69
0.76
3.5 (0.8)0.0013.6 (0.8)0.1850.172
Communication timeliness
 Baseline0.744.2 (0.7)4.2 (0.7)
 Follow-up0.684.3 (0.6)0.6124.3 (0.7)0.6500.958
Safety Attitudes Questionnaire
Teamwork climate
 Baseline0.7372.2 (15.1)76.9 (15.1)
 Follow-up0.7473.8 (14.4)0.35076.7 (15.8)0.9140.584
Safety climate
 Baseline0.7663.1 (15.8)70.3 (14.3)
 Follow-up0.7866.4 (16.2)0.01170.2 (16.0)0.9490.087
Job satisfaction
 Baseline0.8575.3 (15.5)81.5 (16.4)
 Follow-up0.8674.2 (15.4)0.60481.7 (15.0)0.8650.771
Stress recognition
 Baseline0.8568.0 (21.9)65.8 (25.2)
 Follow-up0.8267.8 (20.8)0.48363.5 (24.9)0.3820.388
Perception of management unit
 Baseline0.7660.2 (17.9)59.2 (16.7)
 Follow-up0.8060.2 (18.6)0.66768.6 (16.7)<0.001<0.001
Working condition
 Baseline0.7163.9 (19.2)73.3 (15.6)
 Follow-up0.7163.5 (18.8)0.95677.8 (16.2)0.0290.131
Spreitzer's Empowerment scale
Meaning
 Baseline0.866.2 (0.8)6.3 (0.9)
 Follow-up0.866.3 (0.7)0.2706.3 (0.8)0.9350.602
Competence
 Baseline0.866.4 (0.7)6.5 (0.6)
 Follow-up0.806.4 (0.6)0.9856.5 (0.7)0.8770.818
Self-determination
 Baseline0.864.3 (1.2)4.4 (1.5)
 Follow-up0.864.3 (1.3)0.9924.6 (1.3)0.3420.465
Impact
 Baseline0.884.2 (1.3)4.5 (1.4)
 Follow-up0.874.2 (1.4)0.6394.5 (1.3)0.8670.857
Empowerment total factors
 Baseline0.855.3 (0.7)5.4 (0.8)
 Follow-up0.865.3 (0.8)0.4745.5 (0.7)0.4440.916
  • Mean and SD n=169.

  • *Wilcoxon signed rank test

  • †Mann-Whitney U test. The significant level is 0.05 and statistical significant results are marked with boldface text.

  • LPN, licenced practical nurse; RN, registered nurse.