Table 1

Participant characteristics*

VariableAntiretroviral-naïve (n=44)HAART-treated (n=41)p Value
Age (years)35.4 (28.3, 43.8)49.6 (44.7, 55.4)<0.0001
Female n (%)11 (25)7 (17.1)0.37
HSV serology
 HSV-1 pos, HSV-2 neg†17 (38.6)12 (29.3)0.45
 HSV-1 neg, HSV-2 pos‡4 (9.1)7 (17.1)
 HSV-1 pos, HSV-2 pos23 (52.3)22 (53.7)
HIV risk factor§ n (%)
 MSM28 (63.6)29 (70.7)0.45¶
 Injection drug use0 (0)2 (4.9)
 MTCT0 (0)0 (0)
 Blood1 (2.3)0 (0)
 Endemic country6 (13.6)3 (7.3)
 Heterosexual9 (20.5)7 (17.1)
Years since HIV diagnosis2.3 (0.4, 3.9)16.5 (10.0, 19.7)<0.0001
Country of birth
 Canada13 (29.6)20 (48.8)0.002
 Other, immigrated <10 years18 (40.9)3 (7.3)
 Other, immigrated >10 years13 (29.6)18 (43.9)
Baseline CD4 count
 Cells/mm3497 (388, 601)519 (354, 691)0.76
 Percentage27 (22, 30.8)24 (20, 31)0.59
Baseline HIV viral load (log copies/mL)3.94 (3.34, 4.67)undetectable<0.0001
Years on HAART
 Years on current regimenNA2.8 (1.1, 6.7)
 Total years on HAART8.5 (6.7, 12.2)
HAART regimen type n (%)
 2NRTI+NNRTINA8 (19.5)
 2NRTI+boosted PI15 (36.5)
 2NRTI+unboosted PI1 (2.4)
 3NRTI1 (2.4)
 Other16 (39)
Number of days with swabs28 (26, 28)28 (28, 28)0.001
History of oral herpes
 Yes18 (40.9)17 (41.5)0.32¶
 No25 (56.8)20 (48.8)
 Unsure1 (2.3)4 (9.8)
History of anogenital herpes
 Yes3 (6.8)8 (19.5)0.09
 No36 (81.8)25 (60.1)
 Unsure5 (11.4)8 (19.5)
  • *Values are median (IQR) or number (%).

  • †Includes two participants with equivocal HSV-2 results in the HAART group.

  • ‡Includes one participant with equivocal HSV-1 results in the HAART group.

  • §Ranked according to Ontario Public Health Laboratory hierarchy.

  • ¶Fisher's exact test.

  • HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; HSV, herpes simplex virus; MTCT, mother-to-child transmission; MSM, men who have sex with men; neg, negative; NRTI, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; NNRTI, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; PI, protease inhibitors; pos, positive.