Table 1

Participants demographics

Age in years (M±SD)63.41±10.49
Gender (% male)50
Duration of hearing difficulties in years (M±SD)11.67±10.83
Consulted a healthcare professional specialising in hearing regarding hearing difficulties (%)
Education (%)
 Compulsory education13.3
 Secondary education48.9
 Tertiary education37.8
Self-reported hearing disability acceptance (HDAQ; M±SD)36.88±7.85
 Activity engagement22.72±4.36
 Avoidance and suppression14.16±4.65
Self-reported hearing disability (HHQ; M±SD)34.96±9.95
Self-reported anxiety and depression (HADS; M±SD)14.77±7.50
Stages of change (URICA)
 Readiness-to-change composite (M±SD)39.41±8.63
  • HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HDAQ, Hearing Disability Acceptance Questionnaire; HHQ, Hearing Handicap Questionnaire; URICA, University of Rhode Island Change Assessment.