Table 2

Informed hydration coaching based on 24 h urine volume and osmolality

Trial groupUrine osmolality (mOsm/kg)Hydration coaching
Hydration<300Maintain current water intake
300–500Increase water intake by an additional 1–2 cups/day
>500Increase water intake by an additional 2 cups/day
Control<300Reduce water intake by 1–2 cups/day*
300–500Reduce water intake by 1 cup/day*
>500Maintain current water intake
  • *If urine volume >1.5 L/day.