Table 1

Overview of studies included in the review

Author and countryDemographics sample size (n)Study designMode of deliveryResultsOutcomesTheoretical frameworkDatabase
 Allen and Stillwater,26 USAAlaskan native
N=54 Health staff
N=<200 students
Before and after studyPowerPoint presentation and video focused on issues about OD and Alaskan nativesImproved knowledge and positive attitude towards donation and intention to register post testKnowledge and intention to register as a donorNot mentionedHand search of book
 Alvaro et al,20 USA
(pertains to study II reported in paper)
HispanicBefore and after studyOn alternate weeks, employees of the local organ procurement organisation offered the attendees at a flea market an immediate opportunity to register or information about organ donationParticipants offered an immediate opportunity to register rather than just information about OD were significantly more likely to register (86% vs 54%)Verified registrationThe IFF model (Immediate opportunity, information, focused engagement and favourable activation) MEDLINE
 Andrews et al,13 USAAfrican American
Intervention n=622
Control n=632
Cluster randomisedMembers of the congregation undertook discussions with lay health advisors about organ donation.
DVD designed to address OD barriers for African Americans
Increase in verified enrolment on donor registry in intervention group. No increase in knowledge observedVerified enrolment on donor registryNot mentionedPubMed
 A Warrens, personal communication, 2013 UKMultiethnic
Cross-sectional evaluationPeer educators trained to deliver health promotion about ODIncrease in the percentage of people signed up to the organ donor registerRegistrationNot mentionedAuthor contact
 Callender et al,25 USA

Before and after studyPresentation about organ donation delivered by transplant recipients, donors, individuals on transplant lists healthcare professionals who are ethnically similar to the target population.Improvements in knowledge and attitudes towards OD, high reporting of willingness to discuss OD with familyWillingness to donate organs for oneself and loved ones after death
No valid measures to assess attitudes to OD
Not mentionedEMBASE
 Thornton et al,17 USAMultiethnic
Intervention n=443
Control n=509
Cluster randomised5 min Video about OD prior to collecting driver's licence. Controls obtained licence in the usual manner.Cases more likely to register as donors compared to controls (76% vs 54%)Verified enrolment on donor registryNot MentionedEMBASE
 Fahrenwald et al,28 USAAmerican Indians
Before and after studyOut-reach coordinators facilitate delivery to small groups who were required to read and discuss a 1 page brochure. This was followed by a 13 min video and a group discussion facilitated by the coordinatorSignificant change in stage of motivational readiness to become an OD postinterventionStage of motivational readiness to serve as an organ donorTranstheoretical model of behaviour changePubMed
 Resnicow et al,12 USA

African American
Intervention n=1370
Control n=1419
Cluster randomisedHairstylists trained as lay health advisors used motivational interviewing to discuss OD with participantsParticipants receiving the intervention were 4 times more likely to join the register than the controlsSelf-reported donation status
Verified enrolment on state registry
Not MentionedPubMed and EMBASE
 Salim et al,24 USAHispanic
Before and after studyPresentation about the need for transplant and information about donation lead by a local organ procurement organisationIncrease in knowledge, perceptions and beliefs. No difference willingness to discuss donation with family or intent to donateChange in knowledge and attitude
Donation intent
Not mentionedPubMed
 Cárdenas et al,18 USAMultiethnic
Intervention n=96 Control n=91
Cluster randomisedTransplant surgeons and young recipients gave a presentation followed by a Q&A session and a videoKnowledge increase postintervention was the strongest predictor of positive change in opinion about ODKnowledge, attitudes and awareness of ODNone mentionedMEDLINE
 Feeley et al,19 USAMultiethnicBefore and after studyPeer educators delivered a range of campus-based activitiesIncreased donor registrationSelf-reported registrationNot mentionedEmbase, MEDLINE, PubMed
 Arriola et al,14 USAAfrican American
Intervention n=175
Control n=162
Cluster randomisedVideo and written materials mailed to participantsGreater readiness to sign a donor card, register through a driver's licence or talk to family about wishes in the intervention groupReadiness to express donation intent through a driver's licence, donor card and discussion with familyTranstheoretical model of behaviour changeEMBASE, PubMed and MEDLINE
 Alvaro et al,31 USAHispanic
Before and after study4×30 s television
2×60 s radio ads. These highlighted positive impact of transplant on Hispanic individuals and demonstrated the substantial efforts medics undertake to save the life of a potential donor
Greater reporting of prodonation beliefs and family discussion postinterventionSelf-reported registration status
No validated measures of attitude and willingness to OD
Not mentionedEMBASE and MEDLINE
 Frates et al,29 USAHispanic
Before and after studyPrime time television and radio slotsYear on year increase in Hispanic OD consent rates (overall 10% increase).
Increase in knowledge/attitudes
Consent rates from organ procurement organisation
No valid measures to assess attitudes to OD
Transtheoretical model EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO
 Salim et al,30 USAHispanic
Before and after studyPrime time television and radio slotsImproved knowledge postcampaign when compared to baselineAwareness, perception and belief about ODNot mentioned EMBASE and MEDLINE
 Radosevich et al,16 USAAfrican American

Before and after studyMedia campaign conveyed through television, radio, targeted print media. Donor families and healthcare professionals were interviewed on television and radioSignificant increase in knowledge and attitude about organ donation postcampaign
No significant change in intention and willingness to become a donor
Self-reported registration
Change in knowledge, attitudes and willingness to become a donor
Theory of Reasoned ActionHand Search of Book
Media and education
 Harrison et al,15 USAAfrican American
N=626 771
Before and after studyBillboards in the vicinity of vehicle licensing offices and radio adverts. Trained volunteers with links to donation at vehicle licensing offices to engage in conversationOverall 700% increase above baseline in sign up to the donor register. The magnitude of the increase was greatest when one-to-one promotion was combined with other mediumVerified registrationCommunication designPubMed
 Hebert et al,32 USAChinese American
Before and after studyMedia campaign
Grass roots community outreach
Significant increase in stated intention to donate in the intervention area vs the control areaJoining a donor registry
Express a desire to become an organ donor
Communicating wishes to family
Not mentionedHand search of book
  • OD, organ donation; Q&A, question and answer.