Table 3

Adjusted ORs (aORs) of postpartum depression (n=1320) among women with singleton births from 2002 to 2010 in Finland, using women with no postpartum depression (without or with history of depression) as the comparison group (n=490 287)

CharacteristicsAdjusted OR (95% CI)
Depression before pregnancy3.14 (2.72 to 3.64)
Depression during pregnancy139.35 (120.40 to 161.28)
Maternal age, years
 ≤191
 20–291.27 (0.96 to 1.687)
 30–391.37 (1.02 to 1.84)
 ≥401.30 (0.87 to 1.95)
Nulliparous1.24 (1.08 to 1.41)
Multiparous1
Smoking status
 Non-smoking1
 Quit smoking during 1st trimester1.07 (0.83 to 1.37)
 Smoking after 1st trimester1.10 (0.75 to 1.60)
 Missing information1.09 (0.75 to 1.60)
Married/living with a partner1
Single1.10 (0.92 to 1.31)
Socioeconomic status
 Upper white-collar worker1
 Lower white-collar worker1.00 (0.75 to 1.32)
 Blue-collar worker1.05 (0.77 to 1.42)
 Others*1.15 (0.87 to 1.53)
 Missing information1.23 (0.92 to 1.64)
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal spontaneous1
 Breech0.83 (0.32 to 2.18)
 ForcepsNA
 Vacuum assistance1.10 (0.87 to 1.37)
 Caesarean section1.23 (1.06 to 1.43)
Prior miscarriages0.92 (0.80 to 1.07)
Prior terminations1.15 (0.98 to 1.35)
In vitro fertilisation0.53 (0.28 to 0.99)
Anaemia (≤6.2 mmol/L)1.08 (0.74 to 1.59)
Pre-eclampsia0.92 (0.54 to 1.58)
Gestational diabetes1.29 (0.99 to 1.69)
Maternal diabetes mellitus1.04 (0.77 to 1.39)
Fear of childbirth1.58 (1.33 to 1.88)
Major congenital anomaly1.33 (1.04 to 1.71)
Admission to neonatal intensive care unit1.19 (1.00 to 1.43)
Stillbirth2.00 (0.93 to 4.27)
Low-birth weight (<2500 g)1.12 (0.83 to 1.50)
Preterm birth (≤37 weeks)0.81 (0.71 to 0.93)
Male fetal sex1.07 (0.95 to 1.21)
  • *Others’ comprise entrepreneurs, students, retired women, unemployed women, housewives and all unclassifiable cases.

  • NA, not applicable.