Table 1

Delivery characteristics and reproductive risk factors among singleton births (n=511 422) in Finland from 2002 to 2010 according to postpartum depression and history of depression

Mead (SD) or per centNo postpartum depression, n=492 103 (96.2%)No postpartum depression, n=17 881 (3.5%)Postpartum depression, n=431 (0.1%)Postpartum depression, n=1007 (0.2%)p Value*
History of depressionNoYesNoYes
Mean maternal age, years (SD)29.6 (5.4)27.8 (6.1)29.0 (5.9)28.9 (5.9)≤0.001
Mean gestational age, weeks (SD)39.8 (1.8)39.6 (1.9)39.2 (2.7)39.5 (2.0)≤0.001
Mode of delivery, per cent
 Vaginal spontaneous75.874.466.269.2≤0.001
 Vacuum assistance7.
 Caesarean section15.917.524.922.9
 Mean birthweight, g (SD)3531.5 (549)3475.7 (551)3388.7 (697)3437.0 (599)≤0.001
 Male fetal sex, per cent51.
 Induction percentage16.619.817.421.7≤0.001
 Smoking status≤0.001
 Quit smoking during 1st trimester3.
 Smoking after 1st trimester10.526.816.026.8
 Missing information2.
 Married or living with a partner93.585.789.283.3≤0.001
Socioeconomic status≤0.001
 Upper white-collar worker8.
 Lower white-collar worker34.526.029.225.6
 Blue-collar worker14.215.813.215.4
 Missing information17.223.422.024.7
 Mean prepregnancy BMI (SD)‡24.2 (4.7)24.7 (5.3)24.8 (5.3)25.2 (5.7)≤0.001
 Prior miscarriages20.723.617.922.3≤0.001
 Prior terminations12.≤0.001
 In vitro fertilisation1.≤0.001
 Anaemia (≤6.2 mmol/L)≤0.001
 Chorionic villus biopsy1.
 Placenta praevia0.
 Placental abruption0.
 Gestational diabetes11.213.817.417.6≤0.001
 Diabetes mellitus8.411.114.613.3≤0.001
 Prior caesarean section10.610.412.311.70.35
 Fear of childbirth4.612.011.819.1≤0.001
  • 2 or Kruskal-Wallis test.

  • †‘Others’ comprise entrepreneurs, students, retired women, unemployed women, housewives and all unclassifiable cases.

  • ‡BMI gathered since 2004.

  • BMI, body mass index.