Table 1

Delivery characteristics and reproductive risk factors among singleton births (n=511 422) in Finland from 2002 to 2010 according to postpartum depression and history of depression

Mead (SD) or per centNo postpartum depression, n=492 103 (96.2%)No postpartum depression, n=17 881 (3.5%)Postpartum depression, n=431 (0.1%)Postpartum depression, n=1007 (0.2%)p Value*
History of depressionNoYesNoYes
Nulliparous42.045.552.249.0≤0.001
Multiparous58.054.547.851.0
Mean maternal age, years (SD)29.6 (5.4)27.8 (6.1)29.0 (5.9)28.9 (5.9)≤0.001
Mean gestational age, weeks (SD)39.8 (1.8)39.6 (1.9)39.2 (2.7)39.5 (2.0)≤0.001
Mode of delivery, per cent
 Vaginal spontaneous75.874.466.269.2≤0.001
 Breech0.60.50.70.2
 Forceps0.10.10.00.0
 Vacuum assistance7.77.58.27.8
 Caesarean section15.917.524.922.9
 Mean birthweight, g (SD)3531.5 (549)3475.7 (551)3388.7 (697)3437.0 (599)≤0.001
 Male fetal sex, per cent51.250.253.151.90.06
 Induction percentage16.619.817.421.7≤0.001
 Smoking status≤0.001
 Non-smoking83.263.374.763.5
 Quit smoking during 1st trimester3.77.05.17.1
 Smoking after 1st trimester10.526.816.026.8
 Missing information2.62.94.22.6
 Married or living with a partner93.585.789.283.3≤0.001
Socioeconomic status≤0.001
 Upper white-collar worker8.63.76.74.4
 Lower white-collar worker34.526.029.225.6
 Blue-collar worker14.215.813.215.4
 Others†25.731.128.829.9
 Missing information17.223.422.024.7
 Mean prepregnancy BMI (SD)‡24.2 (4.7)24.7 (5.3)24.8 (5.3)25.2 (5.7)≤0.001
 Prior miscarriages20.723.617.922.3≤0.001
 Prior terminations12.222.017.221.6≤0.001
 In vitro fertilisation1.61.32.30.1≤0.001
 Anaemia (≤6.2 mmol/L)1.62.71.62.9≤0.001
 Chorionic villus biopsy1.01.30.71.10.05
 Amniocentesis2.52.34.23.00.03
 Placenta praevia0.30.30.70.30.36
 Placental abruption0.30.40.70.40.30
 Pre-eclampsia1.21.22.30.90.11
 Gestational diabetes11.213.817.417.6≤0.001
 Diabetes mellitus8.411.114.613.3≤0.001
 Prior caesarean section10.610.412.311.70.35
 Fear of childbirth4.612.011.819.1≤0.001
  • 2 or Kruskal-Wallis test.

  • †‘Others’ comprise entrepreneurs, students, retired women, unemployed women, housewives and all unclassifiable cases.

  • ‡BMI gathered since 2004.

  • BMI, body mass index.