Table 2

Clinical characteristics according to the serum uric acid levels*†§

VariablesUric acid categories (mg/dL)p Value
<4.04.0 to <5.05.0 to <6.06.0≤
(n=245)(n=302)(n=144)(n=58)
Uric acid (mg/dL)3.38±0.544.42±0.285.33±0.266.90±0.90
Age (years)48.3±10.949.4±10.153.5±9.9*†54.7±10.0*†<0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)20.8±2.822.0±3.4*23.0±3.3*†24.2±3.9*†<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)117.2±17.6120.4±18.3125.9±20.4*†129.2±20.5*†<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)71.5±11.473.6±12.177.4±13.4*†77.0±12.5*<0.001
Heart rate (bpm)64.6±9.663.5±0.665.5±12.465.8±11.10.14
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.20±0.825.33±0.865.60±0.91*†5.67±0.88*†<0.001
Triglycerides (mol/L)0.89±0.510.97±0.501.32±0.81*†1.69±1.32*†§<0.001
HDL-cholesterol, (mmol/L)1.83±0.381.83±0.411.69±0.45*†1.69±0.540.001
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)3.00±0.703.10±0.773.31±0.80*3.19±0.960.006
Glucose (mmol/L)5.09±0.845.28±1.385.52±2.00*6.03±2.09*†<0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)80.9±13.776.8±12.1*74.4±13.0*67.7±13.8*†§<0.001
Flow-mediated vasodilation (%)6.85±3.656.79±3.606.24±3.585.27±3.18*†0.01
Baseline brachial artery diameter (mm)3.35±0.463.40±0.483.43±0.463.61±0.51*†0.002
Framingham risk score (%)3.27±3.443.49±2.985.08±3.65*†6.33±5.42*†<0.001
Hypertension (n (%))25 (10.2)34 (11.3)34 (23.6)*†19 (32.8)*†<0.001
Dyslipidemia (n (%))59 (24.1)90 (29.8)72 (50.0)*†41 (70.7)*†§<0.001
Diabetes mellitus (n (%))9 (3.7)8 (2.7)9 (6.3)8 (13.8)*†0.008
Smoking (n (%))12 (4.9)23 (7.6)15 (10.4)9 (15.5)0.04
Metabolic syndrome (n (%))12 (4.9)18 (6.0)19 (13.2)*16 (28.1)*†<0.001
Chronic kidney disease (n (%))10 (4.6)22 (7.9)14 (10.9)10 (24.4)*†0.001
Menopause (n (%))103 (42.0)146 (48.3)91 (63.2)*†41 (70.7)*†<0.001
Endothelial dysfunction (n (%))75 (30.6)87 (28.8)50 (34.7)32 (55.2)*†§0.002
  • p Values for comparisons across the uric acid categories were performed with ANOVA for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • *p<0.05 vs serum uric acid lever<4 mg/dL group.

  • †p<0.05 vs serum uric acid level 4 to <5 mg/dL group.

  • §p<0.05 vs serum uric acid level 5 to <6 mg/dL group.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.