Table 5

Results for indirect costs

StudyCost outcomesUS$ PPP in 2011
Rein et al30Total annual indirect costs caused by visual disorders
Decreased work force participation US$6.3 billion7367 million
Decreased wages US$1.73 billion2023 million
Roberts et al31Indirect costs for visual impairment and blindness
Productivity losses US$4.667 billion4974 million
Lower employment US$4.230 billion4509 million
Absenteeism US$0.384 billion409 million
Premature mortality US$0.053 billion56.5 million
Dead-weight losses US$1.609 billion1715 million
Lafuma et al26National survey with estimation on indirect costs for losses of income in persons with low vision and blindness living in institutions or in the community (declared annually per person and total expenditures)
low-vision; blindnesslow-vision; blindness
losses of incomes €120.00 pp/year; €180.00 pp/year124; 186
 €10.71 million total; €1.87 million total11.07 million 1.93 million
losses of incomes† €3912.00 pp/year; €3168.00 pp/year4042; 3273
 €4369 million total; €183.6 million total4515 million 189.72 million
Brezin et al16Prevalence and burden of blindness, low vision and visual impairment in the French community (estimation of monthly average value)
low-vision; blindnesslow-vision; blindness
Social allowances €87; €36492; 384
Total household income €1525; €15871607; 1673
Household income no VI €18511951
Cruess et al19Indirect costs for Canada caused by vision loss
Employment participation, absenteeism, presenteeism CAN$4431 million5724 million
Dead-weight losses $C1757 million2270 million