Table 4

Results for other direct costs

StudyCost outcomesUS$ PPP in 2011
Frick et al22The economic impact of blindness and visual impairment on adults ≥40 years
Blindness causes mean individual excess informal care days 5.2
Visual impairment causes mean individual excess informal care days 1.2
Blindness causes total excess informal care costs US$242 million294.03 million
Visual impairment total excess informal care costs US$124 million150.66 million
Schmier et al32Annual costs for caregiver time spent in supporting patients with macular degeneration
Schmier et al33Annual costs for quantity of caregiver time addicted to the degree of visual impairment per patient diabetic retinopathy
Mean 5.7 h a day 5 days a week
oOverall amount of US$9572.7711 194.40
Keeffe et al24Personal out-of-pocket expenses regarding the burden of caregiver 
Median annual opportunity costs for work time spent on caregiving $A915 2244.60
Wong et al35Annual median personal costs for informal care and assistance in activities of daily living
For example, meal preparing, dressing, shopping, transportation $A29116451
Lafuma et al26National survey with estimation on costs for time caregiver spent on low vision and blindness for persons in the community (declared annually per person and total expenditures)
Low-vision; blindnesslow-vision; blindness
Informal care €1881.81 pp/year; €7316.26 pp/year1944; 7560.48
€2101 million total; €424 million total2171 million; 438 million