Table 1

Components evaluated

ComponentsTheoretical basesComponent description
Component 2: pain information (day 1)ACT30–32Participants watched a DVD aimed at educating them about chronic pain and introducing them, through facilitated discussion, to the notion of acceptance of their pain
Component 3: acceptance (day 1)ACT30–32Participants were asked to consider a scenario about an uninvited/unwanted guest as a metaphor for their pain
Component 5: the pain cycle (day 1)Fear avoidance model33Groups were introduced to the pain cycle and the varied and individual emotions and behaviours that may perpetuate that cycle
Component 9: identifying problems, goal setting and action planning (day 2)CBT and theories of reasoned action/behaviour34 35Groups were introduced to strategies to enable them to systematically identify problems, brainstorm creative solutions, set goals and devise strategies to escape the pain cycle
Component 10: barriers to change—unhelpful thinking (day 2)CBT and rational emotive therapy34 36Groups were encouraged to consider that reflexive, automatic thinking patterns may prevent individuals from achieving their goals
Component 11: barriers to change—reframing negatives to positives (day 2)ACT,30–32 CBT and change management principles34Participants were asked to consider what they were able to do rather than what they were unable to do
Component 12: attention control and distraction (day 2)Attention control and distraction techniques37Participants were introduced to techniques that might enable them to focus their minds away from thoughts about pain
  • ACT, acceptance and commitment theory; CBT, cognitive behavioural therapy.