Table 2

Results for direct medical costs

StudyCost outcomesUS$ PPP in 2011
Bramley et al15Annual costs per patient compared in degrees of vision impairment from no vision loss to onset of moderate or severe vision impairment or blindness 
No vision loss US$81578695
Moderate visual impairment US$13 16214 029
Severe visual impairment US$15 31216 321
Blindness US$18 67019 900
Frick et al22Total expenditures on healthcare in blind and visually impaired persons ≥40 years
Blindness individual excess medical expenditures US$21572621
Total excess medical expenditures US$2454 million2982 million
Visual impairment individual excess medical expenditures US$10371260
Total excess medical expenditure US$2661 million3233 million
Total annual monetary impact for VI and blindness (primarily owing to home care) US$5100 million6197 million
Frick et al21Cohort with legally blind patients matched to an equal sample cohort with non-blind patients (annual costs per patient in the first year)
Blind persons mean costs US$20 67724 180
Median costs US$68548015
Non-blind mean costs US$13 32115 578
Median costs US$371434
Javitt et al23Patients with normal vision compared to moderate or severe visual impairment or blindness regarding eye-related and non-eye-related care
Mean annual costs for eye-related care
Normal vision US$370445
Moderate visual impairment US$345415
Severe visual impairment US$407490
Blindness US$237285
Mean annual values for non-eye related costs
Normal vision US$79289537
Moderate visual impairment US$21932638
Severe visual impairment US$33013971
Blindness US$44435345
Kymes et al25Lifetime costs of POAG (primary open-angle glaucoma) to non-POAG patients
Incidence costs US$41 03946 456
Prevalence costs US$19 26821 811
Drug costs US$70988035
Incremental incidence costs US$27 32630 933
Incremental prevalence costs US$55556288
Incremental drug costs US$41794731
Morse et al28Extension of average length of stay in hospitals due to visual impairment
5.2 days longer stay
Cruess et al19Financial burden of vision loss to Canadian healthcare system
Hospital $C1497.7 million1934.72 million
Physicians $C866.5 million1119.34 million
Vision care $C3483.7 million4500.24 million
Chou et al17The out-of-pocket expenses for medicines and products per person annually
Wong et al35Annual costs for medicine and products per patient
Visual acuity (VA) ≥6/18 with restr. field $A285632
< 6/60=$A147326
Clarke et al18Short-term and long-term annual hospital and non-hospital costs due to major diabetes-related complications
Blindness in one eye (in 20% of patients) £ 43704086
Mean hospital in-patient costs £872815
Roberts et al31Total economic costs of visual impairment
General medical expenditure US$8.102 billion8636 million
In-patient US$1808 billion1927 million
Outpatient US$6.294 billion6709 million
Drugs US$1.395 billion1487 million
  • POAG,primary open-angle glaucoma; VA,visual acuity.