Table 4

Theories, therapies and cognitive and behavioural techniques influencing the design of the course

Underlying theories and therapiesInfluence on course designCognitive and behavioural change techniques used throughout the course as determined by the groups and the facilitators
Biopsychosocial model of medicine
Physiology, psychology and the social environment and society play a part in health
Whole coursePlan social support/social change
Facilitate social comparison
Barrier identification/problem solving
Devise behavioural goals
Action planning
Model/demonstrate the behaviour
Provide information on where and when to perform behaviour
Provide instruction on how to perform the behaviour
Provide opportunity to devise ways of performing the behaviour
Learn where and when to perform behaviour
Learn how to perform the behaviour
Prompt generalisation of a target behaviour
Provide information on the consequences of behaviour
Reflect on the consequences of behaviour
Reflect on where and when to perform behaviour
Prompt self-monitoring of behaviour
Prompt self-monitoring of behaviour outcome
Review of behavioural goals and outcomesStress management
Prompt self-talkPrompt use of imagery
Prompt practice
Emotional control training
Environmental restructuring
Communication skills
Provide feedback
Prompt focus on past success
Environmental restructuring
Teach to use prompts/cues
Use of follow-up prompts
Prompt anticipated regrets and setbacks
Relapse prevention/coping and planning
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
Accepting the here and now and living with it
Pain information
Acceptance: the uninvited guest
Relaxation and mindfulness
Fear avoidance and catastrophising
Pain and fear lead to avoidance behaviour which is not always beneficial
The pain cycle, goal setting and action planning
Attention management
Keeping the brain occupied on things other than pain, reduces pain perception

Attention control and distraction
Relaxation, breathing, visualisation and imagery
Taster sessions (eg, art)

Social cognitive theory
Behaviour may be influenced by interaction between personal, environmental factors and own and others’ behaviour
Group work/discussion
Listening skills
Cognitive therapy
Recognising the link between thoughts, emotions
and behaviour
Theory of planned behaviour
Based on beliefs about likely consequences of behaviour
Rational emotive principles
Logical unemotional rationalisation of events, thoughts, emotions
Identifying problems, goal setting and action planning
Barriers to change—unhelpful thinking
Barriers to change—reframing negatives to positives
Communicating with your GP
Anger, irritability and frustration: managing emotion
Follow-up—managing setbacks
Mind body therapies
Muscle relaxation, biofeedback, visualisation and mindfulness techniques
Relaxation and breathing
Relaxation and visualisation
Relaxation and mindfulness of thoughts
Physical theory and therapies
Alexander technique for posture and physical therapy practice on balance and stretch
Balance and stretch
  • GP, general practitioner.