Table 5

Risk factors for IES>20 at follow-up (5–18 years after stillbirth)

Sociodemographic variablesIES>20 (n)IES<20 (n)BivariateMultivariate
OR95% CIp ValueaOR95% CIp Value
Age at the time of stillbirth (years)*
 >2719541 (ref)1 (ref)
 <2712132.621.02 to 6.740.0456.601.99 to 21.830.002
Civil status
 Married/cohabiting25591 (ref)
 Living alone681.770.56 to 5.630.334
Divorce/break-up after stillbirth
 No23561 (ref)
 Yes8111.770.63 to 4.970.278
Country of birth
 Born in Norway25631 (ref)
 Not born in Norway543.150.78 to 12.700.107
Household income
 <750 000 NOK19311 (ref)
 >750 000 NOK10350.470.19 to 1.150.099
 Primary/secondary/high school11131 (ref)
 High school+1–5 years17400.500.19 to 1.340.170
 High school+>5 years3140.250.06 to 1.120.070
Occupational status
 Working full time (90–100%)16411 (ref)
 Not working full time15261.480.63 to 3.490.372
Pregnancy history
 Parity at the time of stillbirth*
  111381 (ref)1 (ref)
  >120292.380.99 to 5.750.0533.461.19 to 10.070.023
 Gestational age at stillbirth0.9760.91 to 1.050.516
 Time since stillbirth0.9350.84 to 1.040.234
Spontaneous abortion
 No19401 (ref)
 Yes12270.940.39 to 2.240.881
Induced abortion prior to stillbirth
 No21601 (ref)1 (ref)
 Yes1074.081.38 to 12.090.0115.781.56 to 21.380.009
Live birth after stillbirth
 No761 (ref)
 Yes24610.340.10 to 1.110.073
Experiences in relation to stillbirth
 Awareness of the baby's death before the delivery (h)
 No5111 (ref)
 <2420391.130.34 to 3.700.842
 >246170.780.19 to 3.180.725
Baby's father/close relative present during the delivery
 No/at times7101 (ref)
 The whole time24570.600.2 to 1.770.355
Held the baby
 No1171 (ref)1 (ref)
 Yes20600.210.07 to 0.620.0050.170.05 to 0.560.004
Time spent with the baby (h)
 <1 (or just after birth)13101 (ref)
 1–11 (or 1 time/day)8190.320.10 to 1.040.058
 >12 (or >2–4 times/day)9380.180.06 to 0.550.002
 No891 (ref)
 Yes23580.450.15 to 1.300.138
Postpartum consultation with the obstetrician
 No9101 (ref)
 Yes22530.460.17 to 1.290.140
Additional follow-up
 No631 (ref)
 Yes25640.200.05 to 0.840.028
Arranged memorial
 No891 (ref)
 Yes23540.480.16 to 1.400.178
  • *Significant interaction between age at index and parity at index in the multivariable model.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; IES, Impact of Event Scale; NOK, Norwegian kroner (100 NOK=∼13 euros).