Table 3

Crude and adjusted estimated Vitamin D [25(OH)D in nmol/L] levels from a different geographic origin according to gender and age

FemaleMale
UnadjustedAdjusted*UnadjustedAdjusted*
n Geometric mean (95% CI) Geometric mean (95% CI)nGeometric mean (95% CI)Geometric mean (95% CI)
Age group <10 years
 South Sahara Africa2842 (35 to 51)44 (36 to 54)2450 (41 to 61)51 (41 to 63)
 The Middle East, North Africa2033 (27 to 41)39 (31 to 49)1445 (34 to 58)49 (38 to 64)
 South Asia731 (21 to 44)31 (21 to 46)544 (28 to 67)37 (24 to 57)
 East Asia660 (40 to 89)60 (41 to 88)462 (38 to 101)61 (37 to 99)
 Other550 (33 to 78)47 (30 to 75)344 (25 to 78)35 (20 to 62)
Age group 10–17 years
 South Sahara Africa2223 (19 to 28)‡‡‡21 (17 to 26)‡‡‡4135 (30 to 41)††‡‡33 (28 to 39)†††‡‡
 The Middle East, North Africa1321 (16 to 27)‡21 (15 to 27)‡‡‡3131 (26 to 37)†‡30 (25 to 36)†‡‡
 South Asia715 (10 to 22)‡16 (10 to 25)‡831 (22 to 44)††31 (22 to 44)†
 East Asia459 (37 to 96)§§54 (32 to 91)§§452 (32 to 85)41 (25 to 69)
 Other640 (27 to 59)37 (25 to 54)545 (29 to 77)41 (25 to 66)
Age group ≥18 years
 South Sahara Africa7731 (28 to 35)‡‡33 (30 to 37)‡5736 (32 to 41)‡44 (38 to 51)††
 The Middle East, North Africa6725 (22 to 28)27 (24 to 31)‡‡4331 (27 to 36)†‡27 (23 to 33)‡‡§§§
 South Asia1730 (24 to 38)29 (23 to 37)1641 (32 to 52)37 (29 to 47)
 East Asia2761 (51 to 74)§§§59 (48 to 72)§§§963 (45 to 86)§§58 (42 to 80)
 Other1248 (37 to 64)§43 (32 to 57)945 (32 to 62)43 (31 to 60)
  • Multiple linear regression (log-transformed data), geometric mean and 95% CI.

  • *Adjusted for duration of residence, residence status and season.

  • †p Values from Wald tests of equality between genders of means of log-transformed data (within age and geographic origin).

  • ‡p Values from Wald tests of equality for age groups (within geographic origin and gender) of means of log-transformed data when compared to reference category (first reported category), with Sidak adjustment of p values.

  • §p Values from Wald tests of equality for geographic origin (within age and gender) of means of log-transformed data when compared to reference category (first reported category), with Sidak adjustment of p values.

  • †p<0.05, ††p<0.01, †††p<0.001.

  • ‡p<0.05, ‡‡p<0.01, ‡‡‡p<0.001.

  • §p<0.05, §§p<0.01, §§§p<0.001.