Table 1

Change in the mean risk factor level or in the prevalence of risk factor (percentage points) between 1999 and 2004 by ethnic group and sex (respondents aged 16 and over, except in the case of triglyceride where respondents were aged 35 and over). *A positive number denotes an adverse change in the risk factor level. An asterisk indicates the 95% CI excluded 0. A + or − sign denotes a 5% change in the risk factor for the worse or better, respectively.

GeneralIrishChineseIndianPakistaniBangladeshiBlack Caribbean
 Current smoking (%)−3*−9*4+−33+−4−10*
 Physical activity †‡−4*−4−7*3+1−22+
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)000−0.10.3*+0.3*+0.1
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)‡−0.1*−0.1*00−0.1*00.1*+
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)0.1+−0.6*0−0.6*0NANANA−0.3*
 Waist–hip ratio0.01*0.01*−0.0100.02*0.010.02*
 Body mass index0.5*0.500.6*0.50.9*0.9*
 Systolic BP (mm Hg)§−7.5*−1−2.5−3.5*−2.8−30.3
 Diastolic BP (mm Hg)§−1.1*−1.6−0.9−1.3*1.1−0.80.4
 Diabetes (%)1*+−0.6−0.42.4+−1.4−2.42.2+
 Number of risk factors where change was for
  No change1473553
 Current smoking (%)−4*−7*−1−101+−1
 Physical activity*−4*−31+−6*2+−1−3
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)*+0.4*+0.3*+
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) ‡00−0.1*000.1*+0
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)0−0.2*−0.4*−0.1NANANANANANA0
 Waist–hip ratio¶0.02*0.02*00.010.02*0.010.01
 Body mass index0.4*0.2−*+0
 Systolic BP (mm Hg)§−3.6*−3−7.7*−4.6*−3.7*−1.8−3.6*
 Diastolic BP (mm Hg)§0.7*1−1.61.6*3.3*1.71.2
 Diabetes (%)0.9*+−0.10.7+1.2+3.3+−0.70.5+
 Number of risk factors where change was for
 No change3644336
  • †* Defined as the proportion meeting physical activity recommendations for at least moderate activity for at least 30 min on at least 5 days/week.

  • ‡Sign of difference altered so that decreases in HDL or in the physical activity level are shown as positive figures for consistency with other risk factors.

  • §1998 and 1999 blood pressure Dinamap readings had been converted within the HSE 2004 table to Omron equivalents to allow comparison.

  • ¶Where the published standard error of the mean (SEM) (in 1999) was given as 0.00, we assumed a worst case rounding down from 0.005 and used an SEM of 0.005 for reasons of statistical conservatism.

  • BP, blood pressure; HDL, High-density lipoprotein.