Table 1

Characteristics of male injectors of the IPEDs sampled

 Age, yearsUnder2527%106
35 and over27%107
Median (IQR)28 (13)
Not reported12%48
 Had ever been in prison16%63
Health service use
 Had ever used a Needle and Syringe Programme75%298
 Had seen a general practitioner in the last year about their health45%178
 Had you got advice at an Accident & Emergency / Walk-in in the last year16%64
 Had taken/used prescribed medication in last year28%111
 Had sought advice from a sexual health / sexually transmitted infections clinic in the last year17%68
 Had been vaccinated against hepatitis B23%90
 Had had a blood test for hepatitis C22%85
 Had had a blood test for HIV31%122
Symptom of injury or infection at injection site
 Had ever had redness at an injection site43%168
 Had ever had an injection site abscess/sore/open wound6.80%27
Image and performance enhancing drug use, last year
 Years since first used an image and performance enhancing drug0-436%141
Median (IQR)4 (8)
Not reported32%126
 Oral anabolic steroids57%226
 Oral anti-oestrogens23%92
 Oral clenbuterol15%60
 Oral ephedrine20%78
 Oral thyroid hormones9%37
 Oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i; “Viagra/Calias”)6.6%26
 Oral other image and performance enhancing drug (inc. Diuretics, 2,4–dinitrophenol and Pro/designer)12%46
 Injected anabolic steroids86%340
 Injected growth hormone32%128
 Injected human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)16%62
 Injected insulin injected5.6%22
 Injected melanotan8.6%34
 Injected other image and performance enhancing drug (inc. ethryopoetin, insulin–like growth factor 1 and nalbuphine hydrochloride)5.1%20
Use of other illicit drugs
 Ever injected illicit drug other than an image and performance enhancing drug.4.8%19
 Snorted cocaine in the last year46%181
 Snorted, drunk or swallowed amphetamine in last year12%47
Injecting practice
 Who usually injected you, last year?Someone else17%68
Not reported8.4%33
 Intramuscular injection in the last year88%346
 Subcutaneous injection in the last year39%154
 Ever shared needle, syringe or vial8.9%35
Sexual behaviour
 Number of sexual partners last yearOne38%152
Two or more47%187
Not reported/no sex14%56
 Gender of sexual partners last yearMale partner(s)3.3%13
No male partners82%323
Not reported/no sex15%59
 Always condom (anal/vaginal sex) or no sex last year20%78