Table 3

Association between mental health status item scores (continuous; per one point lower item score) and subsequent cardiovascular events or death, with sequential adjustment for potential confounders and mediators

HR (95% CI)
Adjusted variables*VitalityRole-emotional 1Role-emotional 2Social functioningMental health 1Mental health 2
Age1.41 (1.27 to 1.56)1.29 (1.18 to 1.41)1.26 (1.15 to 1.37)1.23 (1.12 to 1.35)1.31 (1.18 to 1.46)1.21 (1.09 to 1.35)
Sociodemographic characteristics†1.41 (1.26 to 1.57)1.31 (1.19 to 1.43)1.28 (1.17 to 1.41)1.21 (1.10 to 1.34)1.33 (1.19 to 1.48)1.21 (1.08 to1.36)
MRC dyspnoea score ≥31.30 (1.16 to 1.47)1.21 (1.10 to 1.34)1.18 (1.07 to 1.31)1.12 (1.01 to 1.24)1.24 (1.11 to 1.40)1.11 (0.98 to 1.25)
Comorbidity‡1.28 (1.14 to 1.44)1.21 (1.09 to 1.33)1.16 (1.05 to 1.28)1.10 (0.99 to 1.22)1.25 (1.11 to 1.40)1.11 (0.98 to 1.25)
Secondary prophylactic medication1.31 (1.17 to 1.48)1.22 (1.11 to 1.35)1.18 (1.07 to 1.31)1.12 (1.01 to 1.24)1.24 (1.11 to 1.40)1.11 (0.98 to 1.25)
Smoking status1.31 (1.17 to 1.48)1.22 (1.10 to 1.34)1.18 (1.06 to 1.30)1.12 (1.00 to 1.24)1.25 (1.11 to 1.41)1.11 (0.98 to 1.25)
Physical activity1.27 (1.13 to 1.44)1.18 (1.07 to 1.31)1.14 (1.03 to 1.27)1.08 (0.97 to 1.21)1.22 (1.09 to 1.38)1.07 (0.95 to 1.21)
HADS-A/D score ≥81.24 (1.09 to 1.42)1.16 (1.04 to 1.29)1.11 (0.99 to 1.24)1.03 (0.91 to 1.16)1.19 (1.04 to 1.35)1.00 (0.87 to 1.16)
  • *Each model includes the variables from the preceding row so that the final model includes all the variables listed in this table.

  • †Sex, cohabitation status, education, labour market status.

  • ‡History of stroke, diabetes mellitus or heart failure.

  • HADS-A/D, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety/Depression; MRC, Medical Research Council.