Table 1

The range of the prevalence of counterfeit and substandard medicines based on the World Bank classification of countries (by income level)

Income level classificationCountriesNumber of studiesPrevalence of substandard/counterfeit medicines
Range % (median %)
LICLao PDR, Tanzania, Cambodia, Uganda412.2–44.5 (24)
LMICIndonesia, Nigeria, Cameroon418–48 (38)
Mixed group
 LICMyanmar, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Zimbabwe711–44 (28.5)
 LMICVietnam, Thailand, Cameroon, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Armenia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
 UMICGabon, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan
  • Note: Mixed group represents the studies that have been carried out at more than one income level.

  • HIC, high-income countries; LIC, low-income countries; LMIC, lower middle-income countries; UMIC, upper middle-income countries.