Table 3

Summary of subgroup analyses

VariableSubgroup-A vs subgroup-BNumber of studies (number of participants) in each subgroupCoefficient (95% CI)p Value
Intervention settingHospital vs community9 (1124) vs 17 (4092)0.27 (0.01 to 0.54)0.043
Disease areaHIV vs other conditions14 (1323) vs 12 (3893)0.05 (−0.23 to 0.33)0.72
Intervention componentsMI vs no MI component11 (3538) vs 15 (1678)−0.17 (−0.44 to 0.09)0.193
Intervention delivery methodEntirely in person vs other methods15 (1663) vs 11 (3553)−0.03 (−0.31 to 0.25)0.841
Entirely over the telephone vs other methods3 (2679) vs 23 (2537)−0.16 (−0.59 to 0.26)0.442
Both in person and telephone vs other7 (775) vs 19 (4441)−0.05 (−0.27 to 0.37)0.744
Intervention delivery personnelSpecialist vs Routine HCP5 (503) vs 12 (1567)−0.01 (−0.46 to 0.26)0.561
Total intervention exposure≤3 h vs >3 h9 (3061) vs 7 (887)0.07 (−0.35 to 0.50) 0.728
Control group typeExplicit active controls vs usual care (no adherence enhancing strategies)13 (3683) vs 13 (1533)0.09 (−0.18 to 0.37)0.493
Risk of biasOutcome assessment blinding vs no outcome assessment blinding15 (3555) vs 11 (1661)0.05 (−0.24 to 0.33)0.736
Outcome measuresObjective vs subjective measured outcomes14 (3850) vs 12 (1366)−0.16 (−0.44 to 0.11)0.225
  • MI, Motivational Interviewing.