Table 2

Characteristics of regular low-dose aspirin users and low-dose aspirin plus irregular and regular proton-pump inhibitors users, stratified by time of proton-pump inhibitor use

No use of LDASA
N=5.683
Irregular use of PPI
N=2.456
Regular use of PPI
N=4.204
p Value*
Previous starters of PPI
N=2.015
Simultaneous starters of PPI
N=1.064
Subsequent starters of PPI
N=1.125
Age
 18–50599 (10.5)208 (8.5)176 (8.7)58 (5.4)81 (7.2)<0.0001
 51–652.026 (35.7)829 (33.8)592 (29.4)292 (27.4)331 (29.4)
 66–802.163 (38.1) 1.043 (42.5)801 (39.8)424 (39.9)494 (43.9)
 80+ 895 (15.8)376 (15.3)446 (2.1)290 (27.3)219 (19.5)
Sex
 Men3.308 (58.2)1.288 (52.4)912 (45.3)530 (49.8)597 (53.1)<0.0001
Risk of GI complications (%)†
 Increased risk of GI complications1.142 (20.1) 591 (24.1) 756 (37.5)414 (38.9)310 (27.6)<0.0001
 Low risk of GI complications4.541 (79.9)1.865 (75.9)1.259 (62.5)650 (61.1) 815 (72.4)
Comorbidity (%)‡
 GI complications214 (3.8)594 (24.2)831 (41.2)217 (20.4)283 (25.2)<0.0001
  Ulcers6 (0.1)24 (1.0)38 (1.9)9 (0.9)13 (1.2)<0.0001
 Cardiovascular diseases2.447 (43.6) 1.190 (48.5)1.110 (55.1)456 (42.9) 547 (48.6)<0.0001
 Cerebrovascular diseases1.052 (18.5) 400 (16.3) 406 (20.2)171 (16.1) 207 (18.4)0.007
 Hypertension2.221 (39.1) 989 (40.3) 831 (41.2)335 (31.5)477 (42.4)<0.0001
 Diabetes mellitus1.189 (20.9) 544 (22.2)458 (22.7)292 (27.4)256 (22.8)0.0001
 Hypercholesterolaemia3.600 (63.4) 1.592 (64.8)1.302 (64.6)721 (67.8)726 (64.5)0.09
Comedication (%)‡
 Other drugs for acid-related disorders227 (4.0)144 (5.9)163 (8.1)54 (5.1)85 (7.6)<0.0001
 Drugs for functional GI disorders151 (2.7)211 (8.6)275 (13.7)83 (7.8)101 (9.0)<0.0001
 Cardiac therapy1.142 (20.1)664 (27.0)672 (33.4)324 (30.5)314 (27.9)<0.0001
Antihypertensive agents4.523 (79.6) 1.997 (81.3)1.721 (85.4) 912 (85.7) 952 (84.6)<0.0001
  Antihypertensives102 (1.8)36 (1.5)44 (2.2)22 (2.1)22 (2.0)0.48
  Diuretics1.607 (28.3) 782 (31.8) 826 (41.0)410 (38.5)425 (37.8)<0.0001
  β-blocking agents3.078 (54.2) 1.370 (55.8)1.255 (62.3)633 (59.5)642 (57.1)<0.0001
  Calcium channel blockers1.078 (21.5)571 (23.3)551 (27.3)286 (26.9)309 (27.5)<0.0001
  RAAS agents3.221 (49.3)1.205 (49.6)1.081 (53.7)576 (54.1)624 (55.5)<0.0001
 Vasoprotectives111 (2.0)77 (3.1)84 (4.2)25 (2.4)38 (3.4)<0.0001
 Lipid modifying agents3.568 (62.8) 1.578 (64.3)1.288 (63.9)717 (67.4)717 (63.7)0.08
 Antidiabetics974 (17.1)420 (17.1)378 (18.8)244 (22.9)212 (18.8)0.0001
  • *p Values relate to the comparison of the five groups, and are corrected for multiple testing by using false discovery rate.

  • †Based on HARM-WRESTLING recommendations: patients who are >80 years old, or >70 years old and simultaneous use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), oral anticoagulants, glucocorticosteroids, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and/or spironolacton or >60 years old and history of an ulcer.

  • ‡Determined in the year before and after the first prescription of LDASA.

  • GI, gastrointestinal; LDASA, low-dose acetylsalicyclic acid; PPIs, proton-pump inhibitors; RAAS, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.