Table 1

Prevalence of HIV, injecting drugs, violence and condom use among FSWs in Europe

CountryAreaPopulation sampledSurvey yearStudies
Injecting drug useHIV (%)ViolenceNon-condom useReference
 Austria3STI clinics2002111843%1–4†256
 France1Chinese sex workers2008146N/A0 (0)8
 GermanyNatSTI/VCT/private clinics2002; 2010–20112290–33803%0.2–0.30.28 35
 Greece1STI clinic (migrants)2005129900 (0)32
 Italy4Street SWs at STI clinics1992–20084118–5589%1.6–8712–16%84%757 58 31 37
 The Netherlands2Street and off street+2002–20052399–101816%0.5–13.63.811%89%856 38
 Norway1Specialist STI clinic (MSWs)20081746N/A18
 Portugal1Street (migrants)2000–200119650–60%55%1459
 Spain4Street (migrants)1998–20045301–31491%1%0.8–4.53%‡<5%92%929 26 60 33 28
 UK5Street/off-street (migrants)1986–2009525–2684–96%4%0–24130.2%1<1%70%1059 55 22 61
 Bosnia and Herzeg1N/A2007142N/A0 (0)45
 Bulgaria3Street/off-street§2005, 20082799–8742%0.6–1.00.662 63
 Czech Republic2Street1999–20002585–79710%10%0.1–0.7%0.764 56
 Israel2Off-street, illegal migrants2008¶243–3000.1%0–0.30.3<5%1230 27
 HungaryN/AMobile clinic20061500N/A0 (0)8
 Poland2Clinic and community2002–20052250–6502%0–2156
 Serbia (Kosova)1Street/off street (migrants‡‡)20061157 1%0 (0)16%338%45%1367
 Turkey3Unregistered FSWs2006–200712522%0.868
 ArmeniaMultiVCT/STI clinics2000–20073168–2500.4–1.2%1%0.4–1.2%0.433%1456 70 71
 Azerbaijan2Street/off-street2003–20082200–3001%2.5–8.5378%86%146 47
 Belarus1Street/STI clinics2004–20093208–48115.50%15%0–6.43‡56 72
 Estonia1Street/off-street (RDS)2005–200612277%825%1548
 Georgia2Street/off-street (TLS)2002–20097114–1601–6%6%0–1.9113–29%510%1273 49
 Lithuania2Street/AIDS centre2005–2007267–1011%0% (0)0 (0)8%1056 74
 Moldova4Harm reduction and RDS2001–20094151–30011%2.9–8.5653.4%617%1047 75
 Russian Fed17Street STI clinics2001–2009966–17775–100%35%2–62.18‡20–76%10–32%1047 54 76 56 77 78
 UkraineMultiStreet2002–20093646–324815–24%24%12.9–2013‡10%56 79 80
 Kazakhstan6Community2005–200861960–390310–18%12%0.1–2.52‡20%20–50%1081 56
 UzbekistanNatFSWs and MSWs2003–20073407–20000–100%7%4.7–58.5582 83 84
  • *Other refers to all non-paying partners. Seven never using condoms; 8 inconsistent use with steady partner; nine not always using condom for vaginal sex; 10 no condom use at last vaginal sex; 11 no condom use at last commercial sex; 12 inconsistent; 13 never using condoms in last 30 days; 14 inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex in last 7 days and 15 inconsistent for vaginal and anal sex.

  • †Range provided as sample stratified by FSWs who are registered, illegal FSWs, unregistered FSW and FSWs recruited from STI clinic.

  • ‡Weighted mean.

  • (1) Physical or sexual violence; (2) physical violence; (3) forced to have sex; (4) ever forced to have sex; (5) experience physical or sexual violence during last year, in Batumi 13% refers to physical violence only; (6) experienced violence or been threatened.

  • §Includes 16% MSWs +Includes 12.5% Transgender SWs.

  • ¶Date of publication, no data available on year of study.

  • **Includes MSWs (n=14). In Norway and Uzbekistan % MSW in sample not specified.

  • ††Includes MSWs (22%) and Transsexuals (16%).

  • ‡‡Mostly migrants from Bulgaria, Albania, Moldova, Ukraine.

  • FSW, female sex worker; MSW, male sex worker; N/A, not available; Nat, National β refers to region; RDS, respondent driven sampling; STI, sexually transmitted infection; TLS, time location sampling; VCT, Voluntary Counselling and Testing.