Table 3

Unemployment in 2001 and mortality risk (2001–2010) stratified by level of cognitive function and education

Number of events/number of menMortality rates/1000 person-years (95% CI)Unadjusted HR (95% CI)*Adjusted HR (95% CI)†Excluding suicide HR (95% CI)†Selection wearing off HR (95% CI)†,‡
Cognitive function
Cognitive score 1–3
  Employed790/37 2222.65 (2.47 to 2.84)Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
  Unemployed328/50088.41 (7.55 to 9.38)3.19 (2.80 to 3.63)2.76 (2.41 to 3.17)2.80 (2.42 to 3.24)2.64 (2.22 to 3.15)
 Cognitive score 4–6
  Employed1751/107 5982.03 (1.94 to 2.13)Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
  Unemployed500/87837.35 (6.74 to 8.03)3.63 (3.29 to 4.01)3.03 (2.73 to 3.37)3.03 (2.71 to 3.40)2.73 (2.36 to 3.15)
 Cognitive score 7–9
  Employed759/56 6871.67 (1.56 to 1.80)Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
  Unemployed143/31925.83 (4.95 to 6.86)3.49 (2.92 to 4.18)2.85 (2.36 to 3.45)2.91 (2.38 to 3.56)3.02 (2.37 to 3.85)
Education
  Compulsory education
  Employed1000/48 3672.58 (2.43 to 2.75)Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
  Unemployed332/52548.17 (7.34 to 9.10)3.18 (2.81 to 3.60)2.81 (2.47 to 3.21)2.84 (2.47 to 3.27)2.67 (2.25 to 3.18)
 ≤3 years postcompulsory education
  Employed1615/93 2252.16 (2.06 to 2.27)Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
  Unemployed533/90197.61 (6.99 to 8.29)3.54 (3.21 to 3.90)2.87 (2.58 to 3.19)2.91 (2.60 to 3.25)2.67 (2.32 to 3.07)
 >3 years postcompulsory education
  Employed685/59 9151.43 (1.33 to 1.54)Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
  Unemployed106/27105.07 (4.19 to 6.13)3.54 (2.88 to 4.34)3.44 (2.78 to 4.25)3.37 (2.68 to 4.23)3.43 (2.58 to 4.54)
  • *Age is the underlying timescale.

  • †Adjusted for parental SEI in 1960, household crowding in 1960, height, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical capacity score, summary disease score, cognitive function score or attained education and region of residence.

  • ‡Deaths during the first 4 years of follow-up are excluded.

  • BMI, body mass index; ref., reference category; SEI, socioeconomic index.