Table 2

Psychosocial outcomes in later childhood of weight faltering between birth to 8 weeks

Age (years)Psychosocial outcomeWeight faltering between birth to 8 weeksAdjusted OR† (95% CI's)
CaseControl
NMedian/proportionIQR/%NMedian/ proportionIQR/%
6Behavioural difficulties score/4026874–11587474–100.87 (0.67 to 1.12)
7Behavioural difficulties score/4023742–9506242–90.92 (0.68 to 1.24)
Mental health (teacher report)
 Attention/activity symptoms score/3823931–10506230–101.01 (0.75 to 1.35)
 Awkward/troublesome behaviour score/4023900–1505800–20.82 (0.55 to 1.22)
Mental health (parent report)
 General anxieties score/1430010–3686600–21.11 (0.89 to 1.38)
 General anxiety symptoms score/1230000–2683500–11.18 (0.92 to 1.51)
 Mood symptoms score/1229500–0675800–01.19 (0.84 to 1.69)
 Attention/activity symptoms score/3629820–7685920–70.93 (0.72 to 1.20)
 Awkward behaviours score/1829600–1682000–10.84 (0.62 to 1.13)
 Troublesome behaviours score/1429900–1683400–11.18 (0.88 to 1.58)
 Social cognition score/2429920–4682020–40.87 (0.67 to 1.12)
8Attention
 Selective attention score (range −0.4 to 46.6)2734.94.1–6.157594.94.1–5.81.06 (0.83 to 1.35)
 Dividing attention score (range −1.0 to 270.9)2422.6*1.0–7.452642.00.4–5.51.43 (1.13 to 1.80)**
 Attentional control-same worlds task (seconds)27413.011.5–14.5577912.511.0–14.50.98 (0.79 to 1.22)
 Attentional control-opposite worlds task (seconds)27417.5*15.0–20.0577516.514.5–19.51.15 (0.93 to 1.43)
 Friends score/1526732–5572132–51.26 (1.01 to 1.56)
Bullying status
 Victim of direct bullying366102/36638%57031989/570334%1.17 (0.89 to 1.53)
 Victim of indirect bullying25243/25217%5576915/557616%0.97 (0.67 to 1.39)
 ≥2 anti-social activities26920/2697%5716426/57167%1.08 (0.67 to 1.77)
 ≥7 errors on non-verbal accuracy task25276/253*30%54561202/545622%1.36 (1.00 to 1.83)
Self-esteem
 Scholastic competence score/242591715–1955731715–200.96 (0.77 to 1.20)
 Global self-worth score/242611917–2155652017–220.81 (0.65 to 1.01)
9Depression score/2630420–4650720–41.05 (0.83 to 1.34)
10Depression score/2627331–6585731–61.01 (0.79 to 1.30)
11Attention
 Selective attention score (range −1.9 to 25.7)2633.42.8–4.056443.42.8–4.11.11 (0.86 to 1.44)
 Dividing attention score (range −7.2 to 186.5)2580.4−0.2–1.955930.4−0.3–1.51.11 (0.87 to 1.41)
 Attentional control-same worlds task (seconds)255109–115443109–111.12 (0.88 to 1.42)
 Attentional control-opposite worlds task (seconds)25512.511.5–14544112.511–141.05 (0.82 to 1.33)
  • In all the numerical outcomes, a higher score equates to a worse outcome except for self-esteem scores where a higher score indicates better self-esteem.

  • *p<0.01 on univariate analysis.

  • **p<0.01 on multivariate analysis.

  • †Adjusted for (1) potential confounders for psychosocial outcomes: gender, the child's IQ, maternal education, housing tenure, maternal smoking, home facilities score, paternal socioeconomic status, family adversity index, parenting attitudes at 6 months; and (2) potential confounders for infant growth between birth and 6–8 weeks: time between weight measurements, maternal height, maternal age, use of a car, infant health before weight measurement and feeding difficulties (general and poor sucking) in the first weeks of life.