Table 2

ORs (95% CI) for having diarrhoea among family members according to the type of water source and total quantity of water consumed: results of logistic analysis, the 2009 baseline survey of the Kathmandu Valley Water Distribution, Sewerage and Urban Development Project, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

VariableUnivariateMultivariate
Model 1(−)Model 2(+)
Water source
 Improved source only111
 Improved and alternative source1.33 (0.92 to 1.93)1.60 (0.95 to 2.69)1.81 (1.00 to 3.29)
 Alternative source only0.74 (0.44 to 1.24)0.79 (0.38 to 1.63)0.95 (0.36 to 2.49)
Water consumption—litres/capita/day (L/c/d)
 ≥100111
 50–992.51 (1.25 to 5.00)2.58 (1.07 to 6.23)2.92 (1.17 to 7.29)
 20–492.10 (1.08 to 4.05)1.52 (0.63 to 3.63)1.56 (0.63 to 3.85)
 <203.16 (1.64 to 6.08)2.08 (0.85 to 5.05)2.53 (1.10 to 6.33)
Demographics
 Number of individuals/room1.24 (1.09 to 1.41)1.06 (0.85 to 1.32)1.06 (0.84 to 1.33)
 Number of family members1.03 (0.97 to 1.10)1.09 (0.99 to 1.20)1.12 (1.01 to 1.24)
 Age of household head1.00 (0.99 to 1.02)0.99 (0.97 to 1.01)0.99 (0.97 to 1.01)
Socioeconomic status
 Occupation
  White collar111
  Blue collar1.46 (0.90 to 2.35)1.06 (0.51 to 2.19)1.30 (0.59 to 2.89)
  Other1.53 (1.01 to 2.33)1.26 (0.66 to 2.39)1.44 (0.72 to 2.88)
Monthly household income—Nepalese rupees (NRs)
 >15 000111
 5000–15 0001.33 (0.89 to 1.98)0.88 (0.51 to 1.52)1.02 (0.56 to 1.84)
 <50001.51 (0.98 to 2.34)1.13 (0.63 to 2.05)1.32 (0.70 to 2.47)
 Data missing1.49 (0.93 to 2.39)1.21 (0.64 to 2.30)1.37 (0.69 to 2.71)
Education
 College111
 Secondary (grades 4–10)1.27 (0.86 to 1.89)0.98 (0.57 to 1.70)1.07 (0.59 to 1.92)
 No education/primary (grades 1–3)1.91 (1.30 to 2.81)1.85 (1.03 to 3.34)2.16 (1.13 to 4.11)
 Data missing1.84 (0.53 to 6.30)1.24 (0.25 to 6.10)1.41 (0.28 to 7.59)
Ethnicity
 Brahmin/Chettri/Thakuri111
 Newar1.00 (0.70 to 1.44)1.00 (0.60 to 1.69)1.03 (0.55 to 1.91)
 Janajati0.97 (0.64 to 1.47)1.00 (0.55 to 1.82)0.98 (0.52 to 1.86)
 Dalit1.60 (0.46 to 5.47)1.77 (0.44 to 7.16)1.46 (0.32 to 6.62)
 Data missing0.94 (0.46 to 1.97)0.75 (0.25 to 2.26)0.62 (0.19 to 1.97)
Sanitary behaviour
 Household treatment of drinking water
  Always treated111
  Sometimes treated1.33 (0.67 to 2.63)1.23 (0.52 to 2.91)0.94 (0.37 to 2.33)
  Never treated1.07 (0.77 to 1.51)0.73 (0.44 to 1.19)0.74 (0.43 to 1.29)
Toilet facilities
 Water-sealed toilet111
 Other1.51 (0.86 to 2.64)1.55 (0.75 to 3.22)1.29 (0.57 to 2.93)
  • (−)Not adjusted for dummy variables for wards in municipalities/village development committees (VDCs) and (+)adjusted for dummy variables for wards in municipalities/VDCs.