Table 2

Multivariable logistic regression predicting occurrence of at least one patient safety indicator event

Multivariable predictors of ≥1 PSI event*
VariablesOR (95% CI)p Value
Weighted number of patients
Age (years)1.018 (1.017 to 1.019)<0.001
Gender
 Male1.0 (ref.)
 Female0.878 (0.862 to 0.895)<0.001
Race
 Caucasian1.0 (ref.)
 Black1.172 (1.132 to 1.213)<0.001
 Hispanic0.973 (0.930 to 1.019)0.245
 Other0.938 (0.895 to 0.983)0.008
 Unknown1.010 (0.988 to 1.033)0.366
CCI
 01.0 (ref.)
 11.227 (1.203 to 1.252)<0.001
 21.188 (1.147 to 1.230)<0.001
 ≥31.377 (1.336 to 1.419)<0.001
Insurance status
 Private1.0 (ref.)
 Medicaid1.454 (1.388 to 1.523)<0.001
 Medicare1.155 (1.127 to 1.185)<0.001
 Other1.127 (1.075 to 1.181)<0.001
Median household income by ZIP code
 1–24 9991.0 (ref.)
 25 000–34 9990.986 (0.959 to 1.013)0.305
 35 000–44 9990.960 (0.934 to 0.987)0.004
 45 000+0.920 (0.894 to 0.946)<0.001
 Unknown1.003 (0.943 to 1.067)0.929
Annual hospital volume
 1st quartile1.0 (ref.)
 2nd quartile0.945 (0.922 to 0.969)<0.001
 3rd quartile0.883 (0.860 to 0.907)<0.001
 4th quartile0.761 (0.739 to 0.783)<0.001
Hospital location
 Rural1.0 (ref.)
 Urban1.236 (1.198 to 1.275)<0.001
Hospital region
 Northeast1.0 (ref.)
 Midwest0.991 (0.964 to 1.019)0.541
 South1.049 (1.024 to 1.075)<0.001
 West1.018 (0.989 to 1.047)0.229
Hospital teaching status
 Non-teaching1.0 (ref.)
 Teaching0.972 (0.952 to 0.992)0.007
  • *Other predictors included procedure type (colectomy-ref; cystectomy (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.45 to 1.57), oesophagectomy (OR 5.16, 95% CI 4.81 to 5.54), gastrectomy (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.93 to 2.09), hysterectomy (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.58), lung resection (OR 2.44, 95% CI 2.39 to 2.50), pancreatectomy (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.71 to 1.88), prostatectomy (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.27)) and year of surgery (OR 1.037, 95% CI 1.034 to 1.040). All p<0.001.

  • CCI, Charlson Comorbidity index; PSI, Patient Safety Indicator.