Table 3

Comparison of baseline characteristics between this and a related study

InterventionUsual care
CharacteristicJeffs et al (n=305)Inouye et al (n=426)Jeffs et al (n=343)Inouye et al (n=426)
Age (mean, SD)79.6 (7.5)79.6 (6.1)79.1 (7.9)79.8 (6.2)
Male (n, %)137 (45)167 (39)171 (50)167 (39)
Resident in an RACF* (n, %)21 (7)24 (6)47 (14)27 (6)
APACHE II score† (mean, SD)14.3 (5.0)15.5 (4.0)14.0 (4.6)15.6 (4.1)
MMSE score‡25 (20 to 28)24 (4.6)26 (19 to 28)23 (4.9)
Cognitive impairment§ (n, %)38 (13)50 (12)50 (15)45 (11)
Visually impaired¶ (n, %)59 (20)97 (23)83 (26)98 (23)
Hearing impaired** (n, %)61 (20)120 (28)69 (21)98 (23)
  • *Resident in a Residential Aged Care Facility for Jeffs et al; resident in a nursing home for Inouye et al.

  • †Acute Physiology, Age And Chronic Health Evaluation II.28

  • ‡Median and IQR for Jeffs et al; Mean (SD) for Inouye et al, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).21

  • §Prior cognitive impairment. A composite variable for Jeffs et al of documented dementia ± Modified Blessed Dementia Rating scale >4, for Inouye et al Modified Blessed Dementia Rating scale>2.24

  • ¶Corrected binocular vision of: <6/12 CERA kit for Jeffs et al; <20/70 standard Snellen chart.26

  • **Fewer than six whispers heard on the Whisper test.25