Table 2

Adjusted ORs of the association between wealth index and sociodemographic characteristics and antenatal care, skilled birth attendance or delivery in medical facility of women age 15–49 years, Philippines, 1993 (n=1707), 1998 (n=1513), 2003 (n=1325), 2008 (n=1209)

IndicatorAntenatal careSkilled birth attendanceDelivery at medical facility
199319982003200819931998200320081993199820032008
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Residence
 Urban1.29*1.02 to 1.621.44**1.08 to 1.931.70***1.26 to 2.280.990.71 to 1.382.59***2.03 to 3.313.08***2.27 to 4.183.21***2.37 to 4.342.11*** 1.52 to 2.933.12***2.35 to 4.122.43***1.77 to 3.351.90*** 1.41 to 2.561.47**1.07 to 2.02
 Rural (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
Woman's education
 None0.580.27 to 1.260.550.21 to 1.450.25**0.09 to 0.710.08***0.02 to 0.360.17**0.05 to 0.650.700.21 to 2.390.22**0.08 to 0.660.660.14 to 3.210.170.02 to 1.940.480.11 to 2.000.09*0.01 to 1.010.820.09 to 7.51
 Primary0.54**0.37 to 0.790.46***0.29 to 0.740.53**0.34 to 0.850.38***0.21 to 0.680.43***0.27 to 0.670.670.39 to 1.120.48**0.30 to 0.780.690.40 to 1.190.58**0.38 to 0.880.52**0.31 to 0.860.44***0.28 to 0.700.600.35 to 1.03
 Secondary0.67*0.47 to 0.950.65*0.44 to 0.970.690.46 to 1.030.59**0.36 to 0.960.58**0.38 to 0.880.860.56 to 1.340.570.37 to 0.890.890.56,1.410.59**0.41 to 0.840.54***0.37 to 0.780.49***0.34 to 0.700.770.53 to 1.13
 Higher (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
Partner's education
 None0.39*0.16 to 0.940.30*0.10 to 0.850.410.16 to 1.050.550.19 to 1.580.09*0.01 to 0.710.02***0.00 to 0.200.22**0.08 to 0.610.06**0.01 to 0.610.280.03 to 2.54(omitted)†0.110.01 to 1.11(omitted)†
 Primary0.53***0.36 to 0.780.670.43 to 1.030.54**0.34,0.860.650.37 to 1.130.650.42 to 1.020.47**0.29 to 0.780.53**0.33 to 0.860.41***0.23 to 0.710.36***0.23 to 0.550.30***0.19 to 0.420.55* 0.34 to 0.870.50**0.30 to 0.83
 Secondary0.740.52 to 1.050.750.52 to 1.090.680.45 to 1.020.750.45 to 1.240.740.50 to 1.110.780.51 to 1.190.660.43 to 1.040.660.40 to 1.070.58**0.41 to 0.830.46*** 0.32 to 0.650.720.50 to 1.040.850.57 to 1.27
 Higher (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
Woman's age
 <200.911.02 to 1.620.45**0.27 to 0.741.120.66 to 1.900.910.52 to 1.580.930.54 to 1.610.700.39 to 1.260.890.52 to 1.530.920.51 to 1.660.880.46 to 1.710.730.34 to 1.570.700.41 to 1.200.740.42 to 1.31
 20–29 (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
 30–391.290.98 to 1.691.86***1.34 to 2.581.200.86 to 1.661.420.98 to 2.041.170.86 to 1.601.59**1.10 to 2.291.310.92 to 1.891.54**1.03 to 2.301.360.98 to 1.911.260.85 to 1.851.46**1.03 to 2.071.59**1.05 to 2.40
 ≥401.410.84 to 2.391.660.94 to 2.910.870.46 to 1.620.920.49 to 1.701.96*1.07 to 3.571.560.81 to 2.990.870.42 to 1.833.12**1.48 to 6.581.960.97 to 3.972.020.98 to 4.151.040.47 to 2.323.44***1.69 to 6.98
Birth order
 1 (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
 20.760.55 to 1.060.880.60 to 1.300.840.57 to 1.250.790.50 to 1.270.760.53 to 1.110.61**0.40 to 0.930.760.49 to 1.170.870.57 to 1.330.53*** 0.35 to 0.780.52** 0.33 to 0.800.50*** 0.34 to 0.740.56**0.37 to 0.84
 30.64*0.45 to 0.930.64*0.42 to 0.970.920.59 to 1.450.55**0.33 to 0.920.50***0.33 to 0.760.750.47 to 1.180.690.42 to 1.130.610.36 to 1.020.36*** 0.23 to 0.550.72 0.44 to 1.160.45***0.29 to 0.700.37***0.23 to 0.61
 ≥40.41***0.30 to 0.580.36***0.24 to 0.540.56**0.36 to 0.870.53**0.32 to 0.880.47***0.32 to 0.690.31***0.20 to 0.490.51**0.31 to 0.820.47**0.28 to 0.800.32***0.21 to 0.490.41***0.25 to 0.670.28*** 0.18 to 0.450.23***0.13 to 0.38
Wealth index
 Lowest (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
 Second1.090.79 to 1.501.210.86 to 1.700.850.59 to 1.241.480.99 to 2.202.00***1.38 to 2.891.99***1.34 to 2.962.06***1.36 to 3.131.74**1.14 to 2.642.11**1.16 to 3.831.88*1.07 to 3.292.15**1.25 to 3.711.79**1.05 to 3.05
 Middle1.260.89 to 1.781.85**1.26 to 2.720.770.51 to 1.161.250.80 to 1.963.30***2.26 to 4.834.05***2.63 to 6.242.95***1.88 to 4.643.43***2.18 to 5.342.83***1.58 to 5.072.31**1.29 to 4.143.01***1.73 to 5.223.46***2.02 to 5.91
 Fourth1.68**1.16 to 2.432.25***1.45 to 3.521.120.70 to 1.812.06**1.19 to 3.574.71***3.11 to 7.137.17***4.33 to 11.864.87***2.90 to 8.197.20***4.22,12.304.50***2.50 to 8.134.29***2.38 to 7.744.07***2.32 to 7.136.09***3.41 to 10.89
 Highest3.43***2.22 to 5.283.54***1.98 to 6.332.44**1.31 to 4.542.87**1.31 to 6.299.92***5.98 to 16.4312.29***6.22 to 24.276.98***3.62 to 13.4615.53*** 6.90 to 34.947.74*** 4.22 to 14.217.55***3.95 to 14.446.98***3.76 to 12.9416.00***7.99 to 32.02
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • †All participants in this category did not deliver in a medical facility and were removed from the analysis.

  • Adjusted for residence, woman's education, partner's education, woman's age and birth order.