Table 2

Pairwise associations between chronic conditions, measured by ORs reflecting the increased prevalence of one condition in the presence of the other

Cardiovascular diseaseLung diseaseDiabetesChronic pain
Cardiovascular disease2.46 (1.92 to 3.15)3.01 (2.32 to 3.91)2.18 (1.81 to 2.61)
Lung disease2.41 (1.86 to 3.11)2.17 (1.64 to 2.88)2.15 (1.79 to 2.58)
Diabetes2.43 (1.85 to 3.19)2.09 (1.57 to 2.78)1.43 (1.17 to 1.75)
Chronic pain1.95 (1.61 to .36)2.17 (1.80 to 2.62)1.33 (1.08 to 1.64)
  • Univariate associations are shown above the diagonal, and ORs estimated by logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, SES, marital status and the source of the data are shown below the diagonal.

  • SES, socioeconomic status.