Table 5

Multivariable model for WC in men (includes all sedentary and physical activity categories that correlated with WC, as well as all established main confounders)

Model (R2=0.13)βSER2p Value
Age (years)0.400.080.034<0.001
Genetic obesity risk score (range 16.1–39.8)2.890.810.019<0.01
TV time (h/day)2.000.440.030<0.001
Other relaxation (h/day)0.640.410.0040.11
Leisure-time exercise (MET h/week)−<0.01
Active commuting (MET h/week)−0.0090.040.00010.79
Energy intake (100 kcal/day)−
Energy intake*energy intake0.000050.000030.0040.10
Diet score (scale, range 1–27)0.850.560.0020.13
Diet score*diet score−
Sleep duration (scale, range 1–10)−0.301.220.00010.80
Sleep duration*sleep duration0.040.130.00010.79
Socioeconomic status (scale, 1–3)0.1830.480.00020.70
Alcohol (drinks/day)0.480.220.0070.03
Smoking (no/yes)−2.551.070.0090.02
  • β=increase in WC caused by a one unit increase in the measured parameter.

  • R2=per cent that model or measured parameter accounts for the variance of WC.

  • MET index=leisure-time exercise+active commuting.

  • *The increase in β with the one unit increase in energy intake, diet score and sleep duration is expressed in their quadratic terms, since these variables had a significant U-shaped relation with BMI and WC.

  • BMI, body mass index; MET, metabolic equivalent; diet score, adherence to the recommended diet; WC, waist circumference.