Table 3

Estimated impact of FSW interventions (spending or coverage) on annual risk of HIV or syphilis infection among pregnant women attending public prenatal clinics aged 15–24 years in four high-burden states from 2004 to 2008, in an Avahan-funded or NACO-funded district

Annual risk of HIV or syphilis infection*
NACO districtAvahan district†
Average§−11.37 (−15.99 to −6.51)−7.7 (−11.04 to −4.25)0.23
Effect of a one-unit increase per 1000 total population¶Spending0.011 (0.019 to0.003)0.0 (−0.001 to 0.002)0.01
STIs treated5.84 (10.29 to1.09)−0.6 (−2.57 to 1.31)0.04
FSWs reached−4.6 (−9.74 to 0.8)0.3 (−0.7 to 1.21)0.08
Condoms distributed−0.025 (−0.054 to 0.004)−0.002 (−0.01 to 0.006)0.13
n= 117189n=199450
Average§−22.32 (−31.33 to −12.13)−22.28 (−28.7 to −15.29)0.99
Effect of a one-unit increase per 1000 total population¶Spending0.022 (0.035 to0.01)0.007 (0.012 to0.002)0.03
STIs treated12.0 (19.45 to3.83)10.38 (16.01 to4.41)0.73
FSWs reached−0.4 (−10.29 to 10.68)3.25 (5.56 to0.8)0.61
Condoms distributed−0.036 (−0.085 to 0.013)0.027 (0.049 to0.006)0.75
  • *Annual risk of infection is the OR for a one-unit increase in a ‘year’ expressed as percentage=−(1−OR)×100%. Syphilis results were only available for 2007.

  • †70 districts (of 116) were Avahan districts from about 2004 onwards, n=number of pregnant women tested from 2003 to 2008 (or 2007 in the case of syphilis) and pdiff=test for difference in change in risk of infection between Avahan versus not districts.

  • ‡All intervention effects are shown as a 1-year lag.

  • §Average annual decline in the risk of HIV or syphilis infection from 2003 to 2007/2008.

  • ¶Effect of intervention is expressed as change (%) in annual risk for a one-unit increase in intervention. Significant effects (p<0.05) of interventions are indicated with bold text.

  • FSW, female sex worker; NACO, National AIDS Control Organisation; STIs, sexually transmitted infections.