Table 2

Estimated impact of FSW interventions (spending or coverage) on annual risk of HIV or syphilis infection among pregnant women attending public prenatal clinics aged 15–24 years in four high-burden states from 2004 to 2008

Annual risk (%) of HIV and syphilis infection*,
Effect of a one-unit increase per 1000  total population‡n=327796n=257474
Average§−9.08 (−11.73 to −6.34)−22.29 (−27.53 to −16.68)
Spending0.0 (−0.001 to 0.002)−0.009 (−0.014 to −0.004)¶
STIs treated−1.7 (−3.3 to −0.1)¶−10.9 (−15.9 to −5.8)¶
FSWs reached0.1 (−0.8 to 1.1)−3.0 (−5.2 to −0.7)¶
Condoms distributed−0.004 (−0.012 to 0.003)−0.034 (−0.053 to −0.015)¶
  • *Annual risk of infection is the OR for a one-unit increase in a ‘year’ expressed as percentage=−(1−OR)×100%.

  • †Results are for the four high-burden states combined. Syphilis results were only available for 2007. n=number of pregnant women testing from 2004 to 2007/2008.

  • ‡Effect of spending or coverage is expressed as change (%) in annual risk for a one-unit increase. All intervention effects are shown as a 1-year lag.

  • §Average annual decline in the risk of HIV or syphilis infection from 2003 to 2007/2008.

  • ¶Effect of intervention with p<0.05.

  • FSW, female sex worker; STIs, sexually transmitted infections.