Table 1

Child development outcomes measured by EDI

EDI domains/subdomainsExpected behaviour
Physical health and well-being
 Physical readiness for school dayUsually dressed appropriately for school and not tired, late or hungry
 Physical independenceCan look after own personal needs appropriately; established hand preference, well coordinated, and does not suck a thumb/finger
 Gross and fine motor skillsPhysically able to participate in school and excellent or good gross and fine motor skills
Social competence
 Overall social competenceVery good ability to play and get along with various children; usually cooperative and self-confident
 Responsibility and respectRespect for others and for property; follows rules and takes care of materials; accepts responsibility for actions, and shows self-control
 Approaches to learningCan work neatly, independently, and solve problems; follows instructions and class routines; easily adjusts to changes
 Readiness to explore new thingsCurious about the surrounding world, and eager to explore new books, toys and games
Emotional maturity
 Pro-social and helping behaviourHelping someone hurt, sick or upset; offering to help spontaneously; inviting bystanders to join in
 Anxious and fearful behaviourSeldom or never showing anxious behaviours; happy and able to enjoy school; comfortable being left at school by caregivers
 Aggressive behaviourSeldom or never showing aggressive behaviours; not using aggression to solve conflict, not having temper tantrums, and not mean to others
 Hyperactivity and inattentionNot showing hyperactive behaviours; able to concentrate, attend to chosen activities, wait their turn, and usually think before doing
Language and cognitive
 Basic literacy skillsHas basic literacy skills: can handle a book, identify some letters and attach sounds to some letters, show awareness of rhyming words, know the writing directions, and write their own name
 Interest literacy/numeracy and memoryShowing interest in books and reading, math and numbers, and no difficulty remembering things
 Advanced literacy skillsCan read simple, complex words or sentences, write voluntarily, write simple words or sentences
 Basic numeracy skillsCan count to 20, recognise shapes and numbers, compare numbers, sort and classify, use one-to-one correspondence, and understand simple time concepts
Communication and general knowledge
 Communication and general knowledgeCan communicate easily and effectively, can participate in storytelling or imaginative play, articulate clearly, show adequate general knowledge, and is proficient in their native language