Table 3

Quality assessment of included cohort studies

Study (author, country, year)Type of studyBase populationConfoundingLosses to follow-upAnalysis
Sowell, USA, 199924CohortAll Medicare population at risk for lower extremity amputation in 1993–1994Not addressed—only looked at 1 variable—acknowledged as a limitationNo losses to follow-upAmputation incidence rates with and without exposure to podiatry
Lipscombe, Canada, 200337CohortPatients in Peritoneal Dialysis program at University Health Network, between January 1997 and December 1999Data on confounding variables collectedNo losses to follow-upDescriptive stats
Lavery, USA, 201021CohortPatients with diabetes attending Scott and White Health Plan, Texas, USAData on confounding variables collected150 consecutive patients with at least 30 months follow-up from the time of diagnosis recruited so no losses to follow-upDescriptive stats
Sloan, UK, 201038CohortAll individuals with a DM-related LEC diagnosis between 1994 and 2001Data on confounding variables collectedNo losses to follow-upHRs adjusted for Medicare expenditures from care received from non-study health professionals