Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

Study (author, country, year)Type of studyParticipantsInterventionsSource of data used in studyLength of follow-upBaseline risk as per diabetic foot risk stratification14Outcomes
Ronnemaa, Finland, 199722 16RCT530 patients with diabetes randomised
Intervention: 267
Control: 263
Intervention: 45 min individual patient education
Podiatric care visits as necessary
Control: Written information
Clinical report forms1 and 7 yearsLowPrimary: Patient knowledge about foot care
Secondary: ulcer incidence
Amputation rate
Plank, Austria, 200323RCT91 patients with diabetes randomised
Intervention: 47
Control: 44
Intervention: Chiropodist visit at least once a month
Control: chiropodist treatment not specifically recommended
Clinical report forms386 days (368–424, 25th–75th percentile)High (healed foot ulcers)Primary: Recurrence rate of ulcers
Secondary: Amputation rate
Sowell, USA, 199924Cohort255 256 with diabetes or PVD or gangrene followed over timeIntervention: Podiatric Medical care—receipt of any M0101 services
Comparison: Did not receive podiatry (M0101) services
Medicare claims database1 yearUnknownNumber of amputations
Lipscombe, Canada, 200337Cohort132 patients with diabetes on peritoneal dialysis (PD)Intervention: Assessment, education and footcare by chiropodyMedical charts3 yearsHighNumber of amputations
Lavery, USA, 201021Cohort300 high-risk patients with diabetes
150 with an ulcer history
150 on dialysis followed over time
Intervention: Podiatry services—number of visits to podiatrist for prevention, ulcer treatment of other pathologyClaims data and electronic medical records30 monthsHigh (history of foot ulcer)Amputation rate
Ulcer incidence
Sloan, UK, 201038Cohort189 598 patients with diabetes followed over time
Participants grouped into different stages (1–4) of disease depending on severity of symptoms and signs
Intervention: Care provided by podiatrist
Comparison: Care provided by ‘other health professional’—GP/internist/endocrinologist/nurse/physician assistant
Medicare claims database6 yearsStage 1: Moderate
Stage 2: High Stage 3: Active
Stage 4: Active
Amputation rate
  • RCT, randomised controlled trial.