Table 1

Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis of α-linolenic acid intake and prostate cancer

StudyCountry of originStudy designSample sizeAge (years)Incident casesFollow-up (years)Exposure level (g/day)Relative risk or odds ratio95% CI
Andersson et al48SwedenCase–control526 cases/536 controls<800.817–1.350.930.65 to 1.32
Meyer et al49CanadaCase–control215 cases/593 controls≥450.980.54 to 1.78
Schuurman et al20*The NetherlandsNested case-cohort58279 (1525 subcohort)55–696426.30.7–2.10.760.66 to 1.04
De Stefani et al32UruguayCase–control217 cases/431 controls40–89≤0.8 to ≥1.53.911.50 to 10.1
Ramon et al45SpainCase–control217 cases/434 controls<60–800.72––4.7
Mannisto et al24*FinlandNested case–control198 cases/198 controls50–692465–81.0– to 2.13
Bidoli et al50ItalyCase–control1294 cases/1451 controls45–74mean to 0.9
Koralek et al22*USAProspective cohort2959255–7418985.11.09–1.750.940.81 to 1.09
Hedelin et al51SwedenCase–control1499 cases/1130 controlsmean 67.30.05–0.601.350.99 to 1.84
Giovannucci et al21*USAProspective cohort4775040–75354416<0.79 to ≥1.321.121.01 to 1.25
Park et al19 *USAProspective cohort82483≥45440481.1–2.14†0.920.84 to 1.02
Williams et al52USACase–control79 cases/187 controls≥18≤1.0–4.156†0.820.41 to 1.65
  • *Prospective studies.

  • †Based on a 2000 kcal diet.