Table 1

The selected characteristics of the studies comparing the long-term effects of CBT for adult depression with those of pharmacotherapy

 RecrDDPre-HAMDIncluded*PsychotherapyPharmacotherapyFUOutcomeCQuality
Acute phaseNsessContinuation phaseNAcute phaseContinuation phaseNSGACBACF
Blackburn et al21ClinMDD (PSE/RDC)NRRespCBT234 Boosters (in the first 6 months)13Drug of choiceContinuation of 6 months, remaining period naturalistic924Depressive symptoms needing further treatmentUK
David, et al22Com+clinMDD (DSM-IV)+BDI≥20+HAMD 17≥1422.1AllCBT20Maximum three booster sessions56FluoxetineContinued pharmacotherapy576No current MDD+HAMD≤7RO++++
Dobson, et al23Com+clinMDD (DSM-IV)+BDI-II≥20+HAMD 17≥1420.7RespCBT24No treatment offered during FU30ParoxetineContinued pharmacotherapy2812Sustained response (no 2 weeks HAMD≥14)USA++++
Evans, et al24ClinMDD (RDC)26.9RespCBT20No continued treatment10ImipramineContinued pharmacotherapy during 1 year, then tapered1124No relapse (BDI≥16 during at least 2 weeks)+no treatmentUSA++++
Hollon, et al25Com/clinMDD (DSM-IV)23.4RespCBT20Up to three booster sessions60ParoxetineContinued pharmacotherapy3412No relapse (no HAMD≥14 for two consecutive weeks)USA++++
Jarret, et al26Com/clinAtypical MDD (DSM-IV; SCID)18.4RespCBT20No continued treatment6PhenelzineContinued pharmacotherapy624Relapse/recurrence according to RDCUSA++++
Kovacs, et al27Com/clinDD (Feigh-ner)+HAMD 17≥14+BDI≥2021.5RespCBT20Naturalistic18ImipramineNaturalistic1712All monthly BDI scores during FU≤16USA++
Shea, et al28ClinMDD (RDC)+HAMD≥1419.6AllCBT18Naturalistic59ImipraminePharmacotherapy was gradually reduced5718Recovered (LIFE-II) and no relapse (MDD/RDC)USA++++
Simons, et al29ClinDD (DIS)+HAMD≥14 or BDI≥2019.9RespCBT20No additional treatment19NortriptylinePharmacotherapy was gradually tapered1612Did not re-enter treatment+no BDI≥16 at FUUSA+++
  • *Only responders to the acute phase treatments or the ones who completed the acute phase treatment were included in the FU analyses.

  • AC, allocation concealment; All, all randomised patients; BA, blind assessment; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; C, country; CBT, cognitive behaviour therapy; CF, completeness of FU data; clin, clinical recruitment; com, community recruitment; DD, depressive disorder; DIS, diagnostic interview schedule; DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition; FU, follow-up; HAMD, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; LIFE-II, longitudinal interval FU evaluation; MDD, major depressive disorder; Nsess, number of sessions; NR, not reported; PSE, present state examination; RDC, research diagnostic criteria; Recr, recruitment; Resp, only responders to the acute phase; RO, Romania; SG, sequence generation; SCID, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders.