TableĀ 1

Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care risk of bias assessment tool*

Risk of bias domainLow risk of biasHigh risk of biasUnclear risk of bias
Was the allocation sequence adequately generated?A random component in the sequence generation process is described (eg, referring to a random number table)Non-random method is used (eg, performed by date of admission)Not specified in the paper
Was the allocation adequately concealed?The unit of allocation was by institution, team or professional and allocation was performed on all units at the start of the study; or if the unit of allocation was by patient or episode of care and there was some form of centralised randomisation scheme, an on-site computer system or sealed opaque envelopes were usedAllocation was not adequately concealedNot specified in the paper
Were baseline outcome measurements similar?Performance or patient outcomes were measured prior to the intervention, and no important differences were present across study groups, or if imbalanced but appropriate adjusted analysis was performedImportant differences were present and not adjusted for in analysisIf no baseline measure of outcome
Were baseline characteristics similar?Baseline characteristics of the study and control providers are reported and similarNo report of characteristics in text or tables or if there are differences between control and intervention providersNot clear in the paper
Were incomplete outcome data adequately addressed?Missing outcome measures were unlikely to bias the resultsMissing outcome data was likely to bias the resultsNot specified in the paper
Was knowledge of the allocated interventions adequately prevented?The authors state explicitly that the primary outcome variables were assessed blindly, or the outcomes are objective (eg, length of hospital stay)Outcomes were not assessed blindly and not objectiveNot specified in the paper
Was the study free from selective outcome reporting?There is no evidence that outcomes were selectively reportedSome important outcomes are omitted from the resultsNot specified in the paper
Was the study adequately protected against contamination?Allocation was by community, institution or practice and it is unlikely that the control group received the intervention.It is likely that the control group received the intervention.Communication between intervention and control professionals could have occurred
Was the study free from other risks of bias?There is no evidence of other risk of biases