Table 1

Means and SD of area characteristics by spatial units and numbers of participants included in the analyses

Spatial unit*
VariableN250×250 m Mean (SD)1×1 km10×10 kmZip-code areaTown
Number of units (n)27 49510 27212961858422
Unit size (km2)0.0625 (0)1 (0)100 (0)34.3 (96.5)377 (370)
Participants per unit* (n)14660029 (32)227 (234)5777 (4260)762 (642)13073 (8883)
Socioeconomic deprivation (z-score)139600−0.28 (0.68)−0.33 (0.65)−0.43 (0.64)−0.44 (0.66)−0.51 (0.60)
Annual income‡ (k€)13027818.5 (4.8)17.9 (3.7)17.7 (2.7)17.7 (3.1)17.4 (2.5)
Low education (%)13037630.7 (10.9)32.0 (8.5)32.8 (5.6)31.8 (6.8)32.2 (5.0)
Unemployment rate (%)1395958.5 (6.7)8.4 (4.5)10.8 (3.5)7.8 (3.4)7.9 (2.5)
Household crowding (m2 per person)13407537.7 (7.8)37.7 (5.0)37.6 (2.4)35.1 (2.8)35.3 (1.7)
  • *In statistic Finland's linkage dataset, the SD of the total number of residents in the spatial units with study participants is 285 (294) per 250×250 m unit, 2365 (2351) per 1×1 km unit, 68 251 (53 153) per 10×10 km unit, 8096 (5133) per zip-code area and 152 355 (122 064) per town.

  • †The number of participants per unit ranges between 1 and 21 921, depending on the spatial unit.

  • ‡Median income per resident aged >18 with taxable income in the spatial unit.