Table 2

Results from microbiological analysis of specimens collected from 346 women and their infants (at any time point)

Culture positivePCR positiveEither culture/PCR positive
Nipple*
Candida albicans131519
Candida glabrata134
Candida spp9115120
 Any Candida spp21116125
Staphylococcus aureus206 (60%)N/AN/A
Breast milk†
C albicans9N/AN/A
C glabrata1N/AN/A
Candida spp10N/AN/A
 Any Candida spp18N/AN/A
S aureus186 (54%)N/AN/A
Infant nose/mouth†
C albicans15N/AN/A
C glabrata0N/AN/A
Candida spp5N/AN/A
 Any Candida spp18N/AN/A
S aureus253 (73%)N/AN/A
Any Candida spp in nipple/breast milk131 (38%)
Any Candida spp in nipple/breast milk/baby133 (38%)
Any S aureus in nipple/breast milk231 (67%)
Any S aureus in nipple/breast milk/baby277 (80%)
  • *Nipple swabs collected at late pregnancy, hospital, weeks 1–4.

  • †Breast milk, and infant nasal and oral swabs, collected at hospital, weeks 1–4.

  • N/A, not applicable.