Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants by ethnic group

CharacteristicWhiteBlackSouth Asianp Value
N10575149
Baseline measures*
 Mean age (years)61.3±12.662.4±11.357.8±11.40.005
 Male (%)61.566.265.80.741
 T2DM (%)8510098<0.001
 Duration of diabetes (years)18.3±11.613.4±7.114.0±12.90.013
 Duration of follow-up (years)6.0±2.35.0±2.75.6±2.40.05
 Diabetic retinopathy (%)8481760.110
 Mean eGFR (ml/min/1.732)38.1±1939.0±2144.3±210.039
 Mean systolic BP (mm Hg)146.6±26158.3±23136.6±24<0.001
 Systolic BP >130 mm Hg (%)78.186.761.7<0.001
 Mean diastolic BP (mm Hg)76±1183±1575±110.002
 Diastolic BP >80 (%)46.753.337.60.066
 Mean HbA1c (%)8.5±1.88.8±2.28.7±1.90.445
 HbA1c>7.5% (%)67.669.371.10.833
 PCR>15 mg/mmol (%)58.247.564.4<0.001
Constant measures
 IHD (%)28.621.338.90.020
 PVD (%)15.210.712.10.626
 CVD (%)10.58.010.70.799
 Statin use (%)83.880.080.40.742
 ACE use (%)72.470.773.70.894
 ARB use (%)34.340.041.20.519
 Dual blockade (%)14.317.320.10.483
 Current smoker (%)18.613.613.10.609
Outcome measures
 End-stage kidney failure (%)32.444.038.90.272
 Death (%)10.512.08.10.612
  • *Mean values±SD.

  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BP, blood pressure; CVD, cerebrovascular disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; PCR, protein creatine ratio; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.