Table 2

Association of any bisphosphonate use with the risk of hip fracture

 CasesControlsAverage cumulative duration (days)Time since first BP prescription (days)Model 1Model 2
n (%)n (%)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Use
 No use1726 (85.9)8838 (88.0)1 (ref.)1 (ref.)
 Ever use283 (14.1)1207 (12.0)600 (556)968 (622)1.21 (1.05 to 1.39)1.09 (0.94 to 1.27)
Timing
 No use1726 (85.9)8838 (88.0)1 (ref.)1 (ref.)
 Past use111 (5.5)347 (3.5)315 (415)1164 (601)1.63 (1.31 to 2.04)1.50 (1.19 to 1.89)
 Recent use43 (2.1)127 (1.3)515 (521)774 (599)1.74 (1.22 to 2.47)1.34 (0.92 to 1.95)
 Current use129 (6.4)733 (7.3)769 (563)903 (612)0.90 (0.74 to 1.10)0.84 (0.68 to 1.03)
 p for trend0.540.53
Duration
 No use (≤30 days)1726 (85.9)8838 (88.0)1 (ref.)1 (ref.)
 >30 days to ≤1 year139 (6.9)533 (5.3)147 (106)687 (590)1.34 (1.10 to 1.63)1.20 (0.97 to 1.47)
 >1 to ≤3 years92 (4.6)458 (4.6)684 (211)956 (419)1.03 (0.82 to 1.30)0.94 (0.74 to 1.20)
 >3 years52 (2.6)216 (2.2)1566 (375)1698 (437)1.25 (0.91 to 1.70)1.15 (0.82 to 1.60)
 p for trend0.16*0.63*
Time since first BP use
 No use (≤30 days)1726 (85.9)8838 (88.0)1 (ref.)1 (ref.)
 >30 days to ≤1 years41 (2.0)222 (2.2)140 (99)194 (103)0.95 (0.67 to 1.33)0.85 (0.60 to 1.21)
 >1 to ≤3 years120 (6.0)546 (5.4)454 (299)727 (209)1.13 (0.92 to 1.38)1.02 (0.82 to 1.26)
 >3 years122 (6.1)439 (4.4)990 (660)1618 (445)1.44 (1.17 to 1.78)1.32 (1.05 to 1.65)
 p for trend†0.00080.03
  • Model 1: Conditional logistic regression model.

  • Model 2: Conditional logistic regression model adjusted for smoking, body mass index, alcoholism, previous fracture, kidney disease, malabsorption, stroke, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and thyroid disease, PPI (no use, ≤1 year, >1 year), anxiolytics, sedatives, antidepressants, antihypertensives, oral corticosteroids (no use, ≤1 year, >1 year), raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and thiazolidinediones.

  • *Modelled as the median duration of use in each category.

  • †Modelled as time in days since first bisphosphonate prescription (0 for no users).

  • BP, bisphosphonate.