Table 1

Characteristics of cases and controls

CasesControlsp Value*
Age (years)82.4 (6.6)82.4 (6.6)1.00
Smoking (%)0.001
 Non-current smoker69.573.4
 Current smoker2.72.0
 Not recorded27.824.6
Alcoholism (%)
Body mass index (kg/m2)27.2 (5.0)29.0 (5.0)<0.0001
 <20 kg/m2 (%)2.71.0<0.0001
 20–<25 kg/m2 (%)17.612.2
 25–<30 kg/m2 (%)25.528.9
 ≥30 kg/m2 (%)19.830.8
 Not recorded (%)34.427.1
Comorbidities (%)
 Previous fracture17.210.1<0.0001
 Kidney disease4.93.60.006
 Rheumatoid arthritis2.31.30.0006
 Parkinson's disease4.91.9<0.0001
 Thyroid disease10.210.80.47
Use of medication (%)
 PPI or H2 receptor blocker
 Hormone replacement therapy0.00.01.00
  • Values correspond to the percentage or means (SD).

  • *p Values calculated from χ2 test for categorical values and Student's t test for continuous variables.

  • PPI, proton pump inhibitors.