Table 2

Mean Hb concentration according to infection status, nutritional proxies and other characteristics in 16941 children aged 5–16 years (univariate analysis)

VariableData type and sourceChildren no. (%)Mean Hb shift, g/l (SE)p Value
Sex
 FemaleIndividual—KHS8314 (49.1)(vs female)
 MaleIndividual—KHS8627 (50.9)−1.36 (0.28)<0.001
Age (in years)Individual—KHS+0.89 (0.11)<0.001
Socioeconomic indicators
 Educated household head *Individual—KHS8,333 (49.2)+0.82 (0.41)0.05
 Household owns a mobile phoneIndividual—KHS10 065 (59.4)+1.42 (0.40)<0.001
 SES quintile
  LowestIndividual—KHS3,272 (20.4)(vs. lowest)
  Mid (quintiles 2–4)9,926 (61.8)+2.35 (0.50)<0.001
  Highest2,854 (17.8)+3.07 (0.82)<0.001
 Urban locationSchool-level—digital UE map1,237 (7.3)1.56 (1.52)0.3
Current infections
P. falciparum parasitaemicIndividual—KHS607 (3.6)−3.36 (0.77)<0.001
 Med/high-intensity hookworm (>100 epg)Individual—KHS931 (5.5)−2.81 (0.69)<0.001
 Med/high-intensity S. haematobium (>500 epg)Individual—KHS799 (4.7)−3.81 (1.02)<0.001
 Usually sleeps under a netIndividual—KHS9,763 (57.6)−1.78 (0.52)0.001
 Taken anthelmintic in the previous 6 monthsIndividual—KHS7,494 (44.2)+1.24 (0.48)0.01
Nutritional proxies
 Wasting in under 5s (%)†
  Under 5%Ecological—interpolated from 2008 DHS4,027 (23.8)(vs <5%)
  5–15%10 257 (60.6)−5.58 (1.04)<0.001
  Over 15%2,657 (15.7)−8.14 (1.21)<0.001
 Low BMI in adult women (%)†
  Under 20%Ecological—interpolated from 2008 DHS12 867 (76.0)(vs. <20%)
  Over 20%4,072 (24.0)−1.98 (0.80)0.01
 Consumption of iron rich foods in under 5s (%)†
  Under 25%Ecological—interpolated from 2008 DHS14 572 (86.0)(vs. <25%)
  Over 25%2,369 (14.0)+1.07 (1.24)0.4
 School-feeding (SF) status: ‡
  Not an SF districtSchool-level—MoE registers3,690 (21.8)(vs. not SF dist)
  SF district—no programme in school8,417 (49.7)−7.34 (1.08)<0.001
  SF district—programme in school4,834 (28.5)−4.80 (1.19)<0.001
 Generalised livelihood zone§
  Mixed farmingEcological—FEWSNET3,295 (19.5)(vs. mixed)
  Pastoral and agro-pastoral4,991 (29.5)+1.11 (1.45)0.4
  Riverine and fishing641 (3.8)+2.08 (2.42)0.4
  Medium potential farming4,073 (24.0)−2.93 (1.13)0.02
  High potential farming3,941 (23.3)+1.37 (2.14)0.2
 Food security status¶
  Generally food secureEcological—FEWSNET2,756 (16.3)(vs. secure)
  Moderately food insecure7,755 (45.8)−3.20 (1.27)0.01
  Highly food insecure6,048 (35.7)−6.17 (1.25)<0.001
  Extremely food insecure382 (2.3)−5.12 (1.52)0.001
  • *Household head educated to primary complete or above (reported).

  • †Interpolated from Kenya 2008/2009 DHS survey.

  • ‡School included in either the Homegrown School Meals Programme (HGSMP) or Emergency HGSMP 2010 registers.

  • §Based on the USAID/FEWSNET Generalised Livelihood Zone 2010 Classification for Kenya.

  • ¶Based on the USAID/FEWSNET Food Insecurity Severity Scale for the quarter corresponding to the KSH survey date.

  • DHS; Kenya Demographic Health Survey conducted in 2008/2009. MoE; Kenya Ministry of Education. FEWSNET; Famine early warning system network; KSH; Kenya School Health survey (conducted in 2008–2010).