Table 2

Quality characteristics of included studies

AuthorCentres (N)Respondents (N)Response rate (%)Questionnaire robustness*
Ahmadi17110480+
Al-Almaie18327367
Al-Omari19538697++
Al-Omari20917886++
Amin10Countrywide1995++
Andersson21211380++
Brown22145845++
Brown23497475++
Chiu2461115669++
Gale2519222++
Gerrish26259842++
Hadley27Several317100++
Kitto28Several2550+
Koehn29142241++
Lai30214472+
Melnyk31Several160100+
Mehrdad321541070++
Mittal33229385++
Nwagwu34108989
Olivieri35122560++
Oranta36225380++
Palfreyman37110624++
Parahoo381047953++
Poolman39Countrywide36760++
Roth40Several29100++
Scales41Countrywide36572++
Sur42Countrywide7149++
Ubbink43170172++
Ulvenes44Countrywide97670
Upton45Countrywide38176++
Veness46Countrywide19179++
Total24 (77%)
>1 Centre
25 (81%)
>100 Respondents
23 (74%)
≥60% Response
24 (77%)
  • *Robustness based on pilot testing, previous validation, or Cronbach's α.