Table 2

Associations between changes in economic difficulties and subsequent self-certified short (1–3 days) and medically certified intermediate (4–14 days) and long (15 days or more) sickness absence among women and men (n=3859)

Model 0, sex and age adjusted forModel 1: model 0 + childhood economic difficultiesModel 2: model 0 + occupational classModel 3: model 0 + baseline and follow-up incomeModel 4: model 0 + housing tenureModel 5: models 0–4 + smoking, drinking, obesity, baseline poor mental and physical health functioning
RR(95% CI)RR(95% CI)RR(95% CI)RR(95% CI)RR(95% CI)RR(95% CI)
Sickness absence of 1–3 days
 No change (none–none)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 No change (occasional–occasional)1.281.13 to 1.441.271.12 to 1.431.251.11 to 1.411.241.10 to 1.401.221.08 to 1.371.171.04 to 1.32
 No change (frequent–frequent)1.661.49 to 1.861.631.46 to 1.831.611.43 to 1.801.561.38 to 1.761.501.34 to 1.691.281.14 to 1.45
 Decrease1.201.09 to 1.321.191.07 to 1.311.181.07 to 1.301.161.05 to 1.291.141.03 to 1.261.060.96 to 1.17
 Increase1.361.23 to 1.511.361.23 to 1.501.321.19 to 1.461.331.19 to 1.471.291.16 to 1.421.201.09 to 1.33
Sickness absence of 4–14 days
 No change (none–none)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 No change (occasional–occasional)1.441.23 to 1.681.421.22 to 1.661.311.13 to 1.521.311.12 to 1.541.351.15 to 1.581.231.06 to 1.42
 No change (frequent–frequent)2.131.85 to 2.452.081.80 to 2.391.741.52 to 2.001.771.52 to 2.061.861.61 to 2.151.391.20 to 1.61
 Decrease1.361.19 to 1.541.341.17 to 1.521.251.11 to 1.421.261.10 to 1.431.271.11 to 1.441.120.99 to 1.27
 Increase1.641.44 to 1.861.631.43 to 1.861.461.29 to 1.661.471.29 to 1.691.511.33 to 1.731.311.15 to 1.49
Sickness absence of 15 days or more
 No change (none–none)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 No change (occasional–occasional)1.501.18 to 1.911.491.17 to 1.891.361.08 to 1.721.421.11 to 1.811.421.11 to 1.811.311.04 to 1.65
 No change (frequent–frequent)2.181.75 to 2.702.121.70 to 2.641.731.39 to 2.141.931.52 to 2.441.921.53 to 2.411.411.12 to 1.77
 Decrease1.521.25 to 1.851.501.23 to 1.821.391.15 to 1.681.451.19 to 1.771.431.17 to 1.741.251.04 to 1.52
 Increase1.781.46 to 2.181.771.45 to 2.161.571.29 to 1.911.661.35 to 2.041.661.36 to 2.031.441.18 to 1.75